Bio 130 2nd set of ?'s for 1st test

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  1. What is refraction?
    The bending of light that occurs as it passes from one medium to another, such as from glass to air
  2. Whats the solution to refraction?
    Oil immersion, it has the same optical characteristics similar to glass
  3. What does par focal mean?
    That it should be little or no focus change when rotating from one lens to another
  4. How does the calibration work?
    By using the eyepiece micrometer at each of the four possible magnifications by viewing it and the stage micrometer at the same time and matching up the scales
  5. What is cyclosis?
    Cytoplasmic Streaming/motion of cholorplasts
  6. Found in plant cells only that differentiate from proplastids;
    chloroplasts, chromoplast and leucoplast
  7. Have a well developed thylakoid membrane system and contain chlorophyll
  8. Contain pigments other than chlorophyll. Carotenoid pigments they contain impart yellow, orange, or red color to some flowers, fruits, roots, and old leaves.
  9. What does chromoplasts develop from?
    Can develop from proplastids but more often develop from chloroplasts as certain fruits ripen
  10. These lack pigments and do not have an extensive membrane system, some synthesize oils and proteins
  11. A specific type of leucoplasts that forms and stores starch. Commonly found in fruits, seeds, and storage organs.
  12. The shrinking of the cell contents away fom the wall is called:
  13. Membrane-bound tybes of cytoplasm that connect cells across walls and the middle lamella
  14. a specialized part of a cell having some specific function
  15. any cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane, no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes, and has its genetic material in the form of single continuous strands forming coils or loops, bacteria and blue-green algae
  16. any organism having as its fundamental structural unit a cell type that contains specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, a membrane-bound nucleus enclosing genetic material organized into chromosomes and an elaborate system of division by mitosis or meiosis
  17. the layer of cementing material, composed of pectates and similar substances, between the walls of adjacent cells
    Middle lamella
  18. a conspicuous, rounded body within the nucleus
  19. a membrane-bound cavity within a cell, often containing a watery liquid or secretion
  20. any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order: X and Y
  21. A plastid containing chlorophyll
  22. one of the structural units of a chloroplast in vascular plants, consisting of layers of the thylakoids
  23. an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production
  24. a crest or ridge
  25. a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth or rough surface, involved in the transport of materials
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  26. an organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and sythetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to the outside of the cell
    Golgi body
  27. a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula, and functioning as the site of protein manufacture
  28. a flattened sac or vesicle lined with a pigmented membrane that is the site of photosynthesis, in plants and algae occurring in interconnected stacks constituting a granum of the chloroplast, and in other photosynthesizing organisms occurring either singly or as part of the cell membrane or other structure
  29. The matrix of a cholorplast, containing various molecules and ions
  30. the set of flattened membranes in a golgi body, resembling a stack of plates
  31. Most complex of most macromolecules, folded polymers of amino acids
  32. a plant protein which fixes carbon in photosynthetic organisms and accepts oxygen in place of carbon dioxide
  33. Basic common amino acid structure:
    • -OH
    • N-C-C=O
    • -R
  34. Ribulose bisphosphate carbosylase oxygenase, builds sugars
  35. What are amino acids connected by?
    Peptide bonds
  36. 3 different R groups for Hydrophobic Amino Acids:
    • 1. Glycine
    • 2. Methionine
    • 3. Tryptophan
  37. 3 different R-groups for Hydrophilic Amino Acids:
    • 1. Cysteine
    • 2. Aspartic Acid
    • 3. Lysine
  38. Protein step of hooking amino acids together:
  39. Protein step of a-helix or beta sheet motif being twisted, bent or folded
  40. Protein step of being folded to a 3 deminsional shape:
  41. What are the bonds that cross-link the protein together to lock it in place?
    disulfide (S-S) and cistine (-SH) bond
  42. The protein building step where different polypeptides come together, called sub units
  43. How many polypeptide chains does rubisco have?
    8 large and 8 small
  44. What are the Main roles of Proteins? (4)
    • 1. Enzymes/catalysts
    • 2. Membrane transport
    • 3. Storage proteins/Food source
    • 4. Gene regulation
  45. How does proteins regulate genes?
    Activates/shuts-down by bindage to DNA ex-chromosome
  46. Acid type substand isolated from nucleus
    Nucleic Acid
  47. Whats needed to make genes into proteins?
    Nucleic Acids
  48. What the differences between DNA and RNA?
    • Bases: DNA has T, RNA has U
    • structure: RNA has an OH group where DNA has an H
  49. 8 explinations of DNA
    • 1. double helix
    • 2. Phosphate backbone
    • 3. Hyrdoge bonds
    • 4. Width is 20 Angstroms
    • 5. 10 bases makes 360 degree
    • 6. Antiparallel
    • 7. 2 hydrogen bonds between T & A
    • 8. 3 hydrogen bonds between G & C
  50. Energy storing nucleic acids
    ATP & GTP
  51. Phosphate energy storage process
    ATP ->1P->ADP->2P->AMP
  52. 5 descriptions of RNA
    • 1. Single Strand
    • 2. Ribose
    • 3. AGCU
    • 4. Copied from DNA
    • 5. Secondary structure-folding and hydrogen bond pairing
  53. 3 types of RNA
    • Ribosomal-Ribosome
    • Messenger-Carries info
    • Transfer-Brings aa's to site for synthesis
  54. 4 secondary compounds that are not neccassary for plants to exist but play specific roles
    • 1. Terpenes
    • 2. Phenolics
    • 3. Flavonoids
    • 4. Alkaloids
  55. Insect defense/repellent
    Scent(citrenella, rose)
  56. *antibacerial
    *capsaicin is what makes jalpanos hot
    *make wood tough
  57. *color-anthocyanins (purple or pink)
    *antioxident properties in tea, red wine, dark beer
  58. *effects animal nervous system
    * complex w/ring, looks like nitrogenous bases
    * caffine, nicotine, morphine, codine
  59. *smallest living structural unit of organism
    *at least partially self-sufficient
    *some cells are the organism
    *most microscopic
    Plant Cells
  60. Why are plant cells so small?
    • *surface area to increase preformance
    • *maximize surface area to volume
  61. Robert Hooke
    cella is what monks lived in
    Naming of the cell
  62. Robert Brown
    Who found the nucleus and when?
  63. Antonie van Leeuwenboek
    1623 to 1723
    Who found bacteria and protists and when
  64. Scheiden and Schwann
    Cell theory that organisms were made form cells
  65. Rubdoph Virchow 1858
    Cell theory that cells can oly come from other cells
  66. Who and how he proved that cells can only come from other cells
    Louis Pateur w/pasturization of wine and beer sterilization and the swan neck flask experiment
  67. * true nucleus-compartment for DNA
    *plants, animals, fungi and alge
    *are 10-100 um
    * larger and more complex that prokaryotic
    * Greek for nucleus/colonal
  68. *before nucleus
    *bacteria, Archea
    *average 1-10 um or smaller
  69. *not essential
    *structure is determined w/shape
    *poress, not a barrier
    *protect against microorganisms
    Cell Wall
  70. The 3 components of a cell wall:
    • 1. Hemicellulose
    • 2. Pectin-gluey/glucose + acid-used for jams and jellies
    • 3. Glycoproteins (proteins w/sugars) -covalently bonded
  71. used for jams and jellies
  72. proteins with sugars and covalently bonded
  73. 2 Types of Cell Walls
    • 1. Primary
    • 2. Secondary
  74. *thin and elastic
    *layed down outside cell membrane
    *found alive @ maturity
    Primary Cell Wall
  75. *further reinformcement
    *thick and Hard
    *dead @ maturity
    * Also outside but deposited inside primary cw
    *fibers and woods
    *strengthened w/lignin-hard to break down
    Secondary Cell Wall
  76. *living part
    *inside cell wall
    *all cells need it
    *made w/phospholipids, sterols and proteins
    *"Fluid Mosiac"
    *proteins go all the way through-intregal vs. surface
    *Recieve signals and signal transduction
    Cell Membrane
  77. Whats between cell walls?
    • Lamella-glue that holds
    • Pectin-when released breaks down lamella=too ripe
  78. Small uncharged molecules moving from high to low concentration gradient/diffusion
    Membrane Transport-Simple diffusion
  79. 3 Protein-Mediated Transport types:
    • 1. Channel Proteins
    • 2. Carrier Protein
    • 3. Active Transport
  80. A hole, size selected/charge
    *facilitated diffusion
    *best in concentration gradiant
    Channel Proteins
  81. *requires a specific molecule->active sites->change shape/moves
    *no energy required
    Carrier Protein
  82. *ATP required "pumps"
    *changes shape
    *can work against concentration gradient
    Active Transport
  83. No cell wall or represent everything inside Cell Wall
    * nucleus and cytoplasm
  84. *jellous, vicous
    *cytosol inside
    *no nucleus
  85. *protects genetic material
    *site of protein transcription
    *membrane is double layer/two phospholipid bilayers
    *called "Nucli Envelope"
  86. Body inside nucleous involved in ribosomes-rRNA
  87. What is the outer nucleus membrane made of?
    endoplasmic reticulum, network inside the cell, and continues thoughout the cell
  88. *ribosomes
    *protein making
    *moving proteins
    Rough ER
  89. *membrane synthesis
    Smooth ER
  90. *works w/ER
    *flat hallow sacs, pancake-like, stacked
    *recieving side and leaving side
    *modify and packaging store
    *polysaccharides are processed here
    *cisternae and individual sacs
    Golgi bodies/dictyosomes
  91. Process of ER going to golgi to membrane
    Endomembrane System
  92. Process of getting stuff out of cell vesicle merging w/membrane and releasing contents
  93. * membrane bound-tonoplast
    * cell sap-inside
    *recycle center
    * stores pigments, salts, org acid ions, toxic things
    -build up of these can form cystals
    *organelle recycling
    *water regulation-maintaining internal H2O pressure
  94. *bigger structure
    *ATP synthesis called cellular respiration/energy restoation
    *double membrane
    *inner folds are cristae and the location of ATP synthase
    *Matrix contains enzymes
    *DNA-circular DNA molecule
  95. A leukoplasts found in oils
  96. A leukoplasts found in starch
  97. Where light is captured
    *chlorophils location
    *stacks are granum/grana
  98. Fluid around thylakoid
    *light generated ATP to make sugar
  99. *breaks down H
    *carries out photosynthesis action
  100. *breaks down lipids
    *lipids to proteins
  101. Internal support network made w/proteins
    *support cell shape
    *holds organelles in place
    *makes tracks for vesicles
    *made w/actinfilament, microtubule, intermediate filament
  102. Nucleus cage
    Intermediate filament
  103. tiny living bridges between cells
    *lined w/cell membrane
  104. Types plastids can interconvert to and from
    • Leucoplast
    • Chromoplast
    • Chloroplast
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Bio 130 2nd set of ?'s for 1st test
2012-02-10 19:07:10
Bio Botany

Bio 130 exam/ test 1b
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