Anatomy

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Author:
leti5637
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132754
Filename:
Anatomy
Updated:
2012-02-21 14:24:43
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Bone Dev Ossification
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Lecture 4 Unit 1
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  1. Ossification (2 types)
    • Intramembranous
    • Endochondral
  2. Intramembranous Ossification
    • Formss mainly flat bones of skull.
    • Bone develops between layers of fibrous mambrane.
    • Can be seen in frontaneals 9Baby's soft spots)
  3. Intramembranous Ossification
    Process
    • Mesenchyme
    • Differentiates into osteoblasts
    • Osteoblasts lay down osteoid
    • Osteoid forms spicules--> Tribeculae
    • Tribeculae foem spongy bone
    • Endosteum forms around spongy bone
    • Spongy bone remodeled into compact bone
    • Periosteum forms around compact.
  4. Endochondral Ossification
    • forms mainly long bones of body ( especially apppendages)
    • Cartilage Model formed first. (Like rubber dog bone)
    • Bone replaces cartilage over time.
    • Some cartilage remains at Epiphyseal (growth) plate (until growth ends) & ends of bone (for life)
  5. Hypertrophy
    • Gets fat/
    • Explodes
  6. Appositional Growth
    Direction
    • growth of bone in WIDTH
    • Bone cells lays down new bone tissue along outside of bone (deep to the periostium)
  7. Interstitial Growth
    Directional
    Growth of bone in Lenght
  8. Interstitial Growth
    Specifications
    • bone replaces cartilage, where cartilage cells have died.
    • Ocucrs along epiphyseal (growth) plate
  9. Irregular Bone Formation
    Includes endochondral, and Intramembranous Ossification.
  10. Osteoperosis
    Loss of osteous tissue
  11. What occurs in Osteoperosis?
    • An imbalance of bone cells
    • Bone broken down faster than bone formed (osteoclasts break down bone faster than osteoblasts lay down bone.)
    • On the inside of bone.
    • Weight bearing bones are affected (Vertebrae)
  12. Flat Bones
    classification
    • Cranial Skull
    • Parietal Bones
  13. Long Bones
    Classification
    • bones of appenages
    • Femur
    • Humerus
  14. Short Bones
    Classification
    • Cube- Like bones of wrist
    • Carpals
    • Tarsals
  15. Irregular Bones
    • Variable Shape
    • Vertebrae
    • coxal
  16. Sesamoid bone
    • Sesame seed shaped
    • Patella (Knee cap)
    • Develops within tendons
  17. Elevations and Projections
    Landmarks
    • Process
    • Ramus
  18. Processes formed where tendons or Ligaments attach
    Landmark
    • Trochanter
    • Tuberosity
    • Tubercle
    • Crest
    • Line
    • Spine
  19. Processes formed for articulation with adjacent bones
    Landmarks
    • Head
    • Neck
    • Conddyle
    • Trochlea
    • Facet
  20. Deppression
    Landmarks
    • Fossa
    • Sulcus
  21. Openings
    Landmarks
    • Foramen
    • Fissure
    • Meatus or canal
    • Sinus or Antram
  22. Process
    LM
    Any projection or bump (b)
  23. Ramus
    LM
    An extension of a bone making an angle to the rest of the structure. (b,e)
  24. Trochanter
    LM
    A large, Rough projection (a)
  25. Tuberosity
    LM
    A rough projection (a)
  26. Tubercle
    LM
    A small, Rounded projection. (a,d)
  27. Crest
    Lm
    A prominent ridge (e)
  28. Line
    LM
    A low ridge (e)
  29. Spine
    LM
    A pointed process (e)
  30. Head
    LM
    The expanded articular end of an epiphysis, often separated by the shaft by the narrower neck. (a,d)
  31. Neck
    LM
    A narrower connection between the epiphysis and diaphysis. (a,d)
  32. Condyle
    LM
    A smooth, rounded articular process.(a,d)
  33. Trochlea
    LM
    a smooth, grooved articular process shapped like a pulley.
  34. Facet
    LM
    A small, flat articular surface. (a)
  35. Fossa
    LM
    A shallow deppression (d,e)
  36. Sulcus
    LM
    A narrow groove (d)
  37. Foramen
    LM
    A rounded passageway for bloodvessels and/ or nerves. (b,e)
  38. Fissure
    LM
    An elongated cleft (b)
  39. Meatur or Canal
    LM
    A passageway, through the substance of a bone (c)
  40. Sinus or Antram
    LM
    A chamber within a bone, normally filled with air. (c)

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