History of Life

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Author:
acook09
ID:
132755
Filename:
History of Life
Updated:
2012-02-07 00:52:58
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ExamA
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POB
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  1. Macroevolution
    -major change over long periods of time
  2. Sedimentary rocks
    • Older strata at bottom, higher strata younger
    • Fossils of similar are distributed on earth
    • Certain fossils are found in younger rocks….older rocks Higher strata fossils closely related to modern organisms
  3. Radioactive isotopes
    • Half the remaining radioactive material decays to become
    • stable isotope
    • Ratio of C14:C12, when it decrease age is dated
    • Halflife of 157 years
  4. Precambrian 3bya
    • -least evidence and knowledge of
    • small and aquatic
  5. Continental drift
    • movement of lithospheric plates and continents they contain
    • 25 miles thick
    • Affects:climate, distribution of organisms, sea level
  6. Pangea
    • -magma activity
    • Volcanic ash effected sun rays hitting earth---cold
  7. Meteorites
    • -Iridium originated from them
    • Hit earth and circulated in atmosphere and settled on ground Extinction of dinosaurs
  8. Earliest life form
    • Anaerobic bacteria
    • 3.8 billion years old
  9. Major patterns
    • Precambrian
    • Paleozoic
    • --Cambrian
    • --Ordovician
    • --Silurian
    • --Devonian
    • --Carboniferous
    • --Permian
    • Mesozoic
    • --Triassic
    • --Jurassic
    • --Cretaceous
    • Cenozoic
    • --Tertiary
    • --Quartenary
  10. Cambrian 542-488 mya
    • Continental drift cause the plates come together (GONDWANA LAND) near southern pole
    • Life was blossoming-most phyla came into existence-marine species
    • “Cambrian Explosion”
  11. Ordovician 488-444mya
    • Marine-brachipods, mollusks
    • Glaciersover S continents
    • Sealevels down 50 meter- Temp down
    • 75% species extinct
  12. Silurian 444-416 mya
    • Continents merge
    • Marinelife rebound-open water swimmers First vascular plants
    • First arthropods-scorpions millipedes
  13. Devonian 416-359 mya
    • Plates continue to come together
    • Great diversification of coral animals
    • Great-shelled cephalapod mollusks were prevalent
    • 75% extinction 2 meteorites
  14. Carboniferous 359-297 mya
    • Crinoid gardens-echinoderms
    • Tree-sized
    • Glaciers in high latitudes of S continents
    • Swamp forests--todays coal
    • Amniotes-eggs in dry places
  15. Permian 290 mya
    • Continents come to form Pangea
    • Volcanic events
    • Glaciation-due to ash
    • Massive climate change
    • Massive extinction 96%
  16. Mesozoic 251 mya
    • Age of dinosaurs
    • Jurassic-dinosaurs thrive
  17. End of Crustaceous period
    • —meteor eliminated dinosaurs and end of Mesozoic Cretaceous-continents move apart
    • Pangea euroasia+gondwana
  18. Oxygen levels
    • 1.Increase in O­­2- 2.4 bya bacteria used water’s H for photosynthesis
    • Cyanobacteria
    • Aerobesreplaced anaerobes
    • 2.Evolutionof large vascular plants in expansive lowland swamps
    • 359-297mya
    • Oconcentrations were all time high
  19. Biota
    Flora
    Fauna
    • Biota-all organisms living in a particular time
    • Flora-plants
    • Fauna-animals
  20. Rates of evolutionary change
    • Little change--IE Ginko plants, horseshoe crabs, sea urchin Gradual change-gradualism
    • Rapid change-Punctuated equilibrium
  21. Scarcity of fossils
    • Decomposition
    • Rocks are transformed
    • Inaccessible
    • Hard-skeletonswithstand
  22. Living fossils
    -much alike organisms from along time ago still alive
  23. Extinction
    • 99% of all species that have ever lived on earth are extinct
    • Environment is key factor
    • Land/marine rates are different
  24. Future of Evolution
    • Artificial selection
    • Genetic engineering
    • Indirect means
    • --Pollution
    • --Movement of exotics

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