ATI-Mod1

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Sissy_21
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132815
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ATI-Mod1
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2012-02-04 15:11:57
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ATI Exam1
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ATI-Mod1
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  1. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Give some examples of ethical considerations. (there are several)
    • Preventing harm, doing no harm, promoting good;
    • Respecting both individual and community rights, respecting autonomy and diversity;
    • Providing confidentiality, competency, trustworthiness, and advocacy;
    • Protecting, promoting, preserving, and maintaining health and preventing disease
  2. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    What does the phrase "Maintaining Autonomy" mean?
    Protection of privacy, respect for person, informed consent, and fulfillment of client goals
  3. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    What does "providing ethical care" refer to?
    The client’s right to information disclosure, privacy, informed consent, information confidentiality, and participation in treatment decisions
  4. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    What term would be used to describe the following statement:
    *The client has the right to make decisions affecting their health and welfare, as they are responsible for their own health*
    Advocacy
  5. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    What term would be used to describe the following statement:
    *Client has a right to expect the nurse-client relationship to be based on trust, collaboration, and shared respect related to health and considerate of their thoughts and feelings*
    Advocacy
  6. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    What term would be used to describe the following statement:
    *The nurse has a responsibility to ensure access to services that meet the client’s health care needs*
    Advocacy
  7. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    What term would be used to describe the following statement:
    *The nurse must be assertive, recognize that the values of the client and family must be a priority even when they differ from the providers values, and intervene politically when necessary*
    Advocacy
  8. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    This is the study of disease trends in populations for the purpose of disease prevention and health maintenance; Provides a broad understanding of the spread and transmission of disease
    Epidemiology
  9. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    This relies on statistics to determine the rate of spread of disease and the proportion affected, and to evaluate the effectiveness of disease prevention and health promotion and to determine the extent of goals met
    Epidemiology
  10. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    What are the 6 epidemiological calculations?
    • 1. Incidence
    • 2. Prevalence
    • 3. Crude mortality rate
    • 4. Infant mortality rate
    • 5. Attack rate
    • 6. Epidemic
  11. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiology: What is incidence?
    Incidence: New cases
  12. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiology: What is prevalence?
    Prevalence: Existing disease in a population at any given time
  13. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiology: What is Crude mortality rate?
    • Crude mortality rate:
    • (# of deaths / population X 1000)
  14. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiology: What is infant mortality rate?
    • Infant mortality rate:
    • (# of deaths among infants less than 1 year of age per 1000 live births in a given year)
  15. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiology: What is attack rate?
    Attack rate: The cumulative incidence of infection in a group of people observed over a period of time during an epidemic
  16. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiology: What is epidemic?
    Epidemic: When the rate of disease exceeds the usual level of the condition; Disease progression substantially exceedes what is expected based on recent experience
  17. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiological Triangle - What are the 4 components to this triangle?
    • 1. Host (either susceptible or nonsusceptible)
    • 2. Agent (either infectious, physical, or chemical)
    • 3. Environment (reserviors & modes of transmission)
    • 4. Vector (either nonliving <vehicle> or living <intermediary>)
  18. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiological triangle - What types of immunity are associated with nonsusceptible hosts?
    • 1. Active (natural or artificial)
    • 2. Passive (natural or artificial)
  19. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiological triangle - What are some examples of factors that make a host susceptible?
    • 1. Altered immunity
    • 2. Altered resistance
    • 3. Risk characteristics (ex - genetics, gender, age, physiological state, prior disease state, social class, cultural group, & occupation)
  20. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiological triangle - Give some examples of intermediary (living) vectors.
    Mosquitos, fleas, birds, ticks, rodents, ect.
  21. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiological triangle - Give some examples of vehicle (nonliving) vectors.
    Clothing, food, water, ect.
  22. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiological triangle - Give some examples of infectious agents.
    Viruses, fungi, bacteria, protozoa, metazoa, rickettsia, ect.
  23. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiological triangle - Give some examples of physical agents.
    Trauma, genetics, noise, temperature, repetitive motions, ect.
  24. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiological triangle - Give some examples of chemical agents.
    Drugs, fumes, toxins, ect.
  25. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiological triangle - Give some examples of environmental reserviors & modes of transmission.
    Human reserviors, physical factors, temperature, rainfall, socioeconomic factors, availability of resources, access to healthcare, high-risk working conditions, crowded living conditions, ect.
  26. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiological triangle : What exactly is the agent in this equation?
    The agent is the animate or inanimate object that causes the disease.
  27. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Epidemiology involves the study of the relationships among an agent, a host, and an
    environment, often referred to as the _____ _____.
    epidemiological triangle
  28. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    What are the 7 steps to the epidemiological process?
    • 1. Determine the nature, extent, and possible significance of the problem
    • 2. Formulate a possible theory from data collected
    • 3. Gather information from other sources to try and narrow down the possibilities
    • 4. Make a plan
    • 5. Put the plan into action
    • 6. Evaluate the plan
    • 7. Report and follow up
  29. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Community health nurses promote, maintain, and restore the health of populations by a variety of means, such as _____ _____ _____.
    community education programs
  30. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Community-Based Health Education - What is the focus of the behavioral theory?
    Changing behavior through the use of reinforcement methods
  31. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Community-Based Health Education - What is the focus of the cognitive theory?
    Changing thought patterns through the use of methods that offer a variety of sensory input and repitition
  32. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Community-Based Health Education - What is the focus of the critical theory?
    Increasing depth of knowledge using through the use of methods such as discussion and inquiry
  33. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Community-Based Health Education - What is the focus of the developmental theory?
    The human developmental stage and and methods that are age-specific and age-appropriate with importance given to "readiness to learn"
  34. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Community-Based Health Education - What is the focus of the humanistic theory?
    Feelings and relationships, and methods are based on the principle that learners will do what is in their best interest
  35. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Community-Based Health Education - What is the focus of the social learning theory?
    Changing the learners' expectations and beliefs through the use of methods that link information to beliefs and values
  36. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    What are the 3 types of learning styles?
    • 1. Visual
    • 2. Auditory
    • 3. Tactile-Kinesthetic
  37. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    What are the 3 levels of prevention?
    • 1. Primary prevention
    • 2. Secondary prevention
    • 3. Tertiary prevention
  38. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    What is the focus of primary prevention?
    Prevention of the initial occurence of disease or injury
  39. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Give some examples of primary prevention.
    Nutrition counseling; family planning / sex education; smoking cessation education; communicable disease education; health and hygeine education to specific groups (waitress / day care worker ect); safety education (seat belts, helmet use, ect); prenatal classes; providing immunizations; community assessments; disease surveillance; advocating for the resolution of health issues (access to health care, healthy environments, ect)
  40. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    What is the focus of secondary prevention?
    Early detection of disease and treatments with the goal of limiting severity and adverse effects
  41. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Give some examples of secondary prevention.
    Screenings (cancer, DM, HTN, hypercholesterolemia, sensory impairments, TB, lead exposure, genetic disorders / metabolic deficiencies in newborns, ect), treatments of STDs, treatment of TB, control of outbreaks of comunicable diseases
  42. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    What is the focus of tertiary prevention?
    Maximization of recovery after an injury or illness (rehabilitation)
  43. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Give some examples of tertiary prevention.
    Nutrition counseling, exercise rehabilitation, case management (chronic or mental illiness), shelters, support groups, exercise for hypertensive clients (individual)
  44. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Historical figures: Who developed the American Red Cross?
    Clara Barton
  45. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Historical figures: Who established the Henry Street Settlement House?
    Lillian Ward
  46. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Historical figures: Who developed nursing training after returning from the war?
    Florence Nightingale
  47. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    Historical figures: Who developed the Frontier Nursing Service?
    Mary Breckinridge
  48. Principles of Community Health Nursing:
    _____ is the capacity to be one’s own person and to live one’s life according to selfdetermined reasons and motives that are not the product of external forces.
    Autonomy
  49. Factors Influencing Community Health:
    What are the factors that influence community health?
    Family and cultural values, social and environmental influences, and economic concerns.
  50. Factors Influencing Community Health:
    _____ is defined as beliefs, values, and assumptions about life that are widely held among
    a group of people and are transmitted across generations.
    Culture
  51. Factors Influencing Community Health:
    What does the phrase "envorinmental health" refer to?
    The influence of environmental conditions on the development of disease or injury.
  52. Factors Influencing Community Health:
    _____ is the process of learning a new culture.
    Acculturation
  53. Factors Influencing Community Health:
    There are 9 "general cultural assessment parameters". Name as many as possible.
    • 1. Ethnic background
    • 2. Religious preference
    • 3. Family structure
    • 4. Language
    • 5. Communication needs
    • 6. Education
    • 7. Cultural values
    • 8. Food patterns
    • 9. Health practices
  54. Factors Influencing Community Health:
    What are the 3 steps of data collection for a cultural assessment?
    • 1. Collection of self-identifying data
    • 2. Posing questions that address the client's perception of his health needs
    • 3. Identification of cultural factors that may impact the choice of nursing interventions
  55. Factors Influencing Community Health:
    Assessment of envorinmental health - What are the components of the "IPREPARE" model?
    • I = investigate potential exposures (trends, taking home exposures)
    • P = present work (current job)
    • R = residence (age, heating)
    • E = environmental concerns (air, water)
    • P = past work (work history)
    • A = activities (hobbies, gardening)
    • R = referral and resources (EPA)
    • E = educate ((risk reduction, prevention)
  56. Factors Influencing Comminuty Health:
    What are the 3 nursing interventions for environmental health?
    • Primary: educate to reduce environmental hazards
    • Secondary: survey, monitor, and screen for conditions that may be related to environmental and occupational exposures
    • Tertiary: refer and educate
  57. Factors Influencing Community Health:
    What are some barriers to health care?
    • Inadequate health care insurance
    • Inability to pay for services
    • Language barriers
    • Cultural barriers
    • Lack of health care providers in the community
    • Geographic isolation
    • Social isolation
    • Lack of communication tools (telephone)
    • Lack of personal or public transportation
    • Inconvenient hours
    • Attitude of health care personnel toward clients of low socioeconomic status or those with different cultural/ethnic backgrounds
    • Eligibility requirements for state/federal assistance programs

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