Anatomy lec. 2
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what is matter?
anything that takes up space, and has mass. composed of elements.
what is an element?
composed of chemically identical atoms
what are bulk elements?
elements that are required by the body in large amounts
what are trace elements?
elements required by the body in small amounts
what is an atom?
the smalles particle of an element
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
the number of proton and neutrons in an atom
what is an isotope?
- an atom with the same atomic number but with a different atomic weight
- same number of protons and electrons but different neutrons
what is a molecule
particle formed when 2 or more atoms chemically combine
what is a compound
particle formed when 2 or more atoms of different elements chemically bond
when is an atom most stable?
when the outermost shell is full of electrons
what is an ion?
- an atom that gains or loses electrons to become stable
- it is electrically charged
what is an anion?
a negatively charged ion, formed when an atom gains electrons
what is a cation?
a negativley charged ion, formed when an atom gains electrons
what is an ionic bond?
- an attraction between a cation and an anion.
- when electrons are transferred between atoms
what is a covalent bond?
formed when atoms share electrons
- slightly positive and negative ends
- formed when electrons are not shared equally in covalent bonds
- bond between water
- important for protein and nucleic acid structure
- Weakest bond
when does a chemical reactions occur
when chemical bonds form or break among atoms, ions, or molecules
the starting material of a reaction
are the substances formed at the end of the chemical reaction
A + B ---> AB
AB ---> A +B
Exchange reaction or double displacement
AB + CD ---> AD + CB
- A + B <--> AB
- the products can change back to the reactants
substances that release ions in water
electrolytes that dissociate to release hydrogen ions in water
substances that release ions that van combine with hydrogen ions
electrolytes formed by the reactions between and acid and a base
what does pH mean
indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
what is a neutral pH
pH 7, indicateds equal concentration of H+ and OH-
what is an acidic pH
less than 7, indicates greater concentration of H+
what is a basic/alkaline pH
pH greater than 7, indicates a greater concentration of OH-
how to pH levels increase
they increase in tens 10, 100, 1,000
what do organic molecules contatin?
they contain Carbon and Hydrogen, and are usually larger than inorganic molecules
what do organic molecules dissolve in?
in water and organic liquids
what are some organic molecules
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid
- generally do not contain Carbon
- usually dissociate in water forming ions
examples of inorganic molecules
water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inorganic salts
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