Anatomy lec. 2

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Anonymous
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132827
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Anatomy lec. 2
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2012-02-04 17:07:00
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Lecture chap
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lecture chapter 2
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  1. what is matter?
    anything that takes up space, and has mass. composed of elements.
  2. what is an element?
    composed of chemically identical atoms
  3. what are bulk elements?
    elements that are required by the body in large amounts
  4. what are trace elements?
    elements required by the body in small amounts
  5. what is an atom?
    the smalles particle of an element
  6. atomic number
    the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
  7. atomic weight
    the number of proton and neutrons in an atom
  8. what is an isotope?
    • an atom with the same atomic number but with a different atomic weight
    • same number of protons and electrons but different neutrons
  9. what is a molecule
    particle formed when 2 or more atoms chemically combine
  10. what is a compound
    particle formed when 2 or more atoms of different elements chemically bond
  11. when is an atom most stable?
    when the outermost shell is full of electrons
  12. what is an ion?
    • an atom that gains or loses electrons to become stable
    • it is electrically charged
  13. what is an anion?
    a negatively charged ion, formed when an atom gains electrons
  14. what is a cation?
    a negativley charged ion, formed when an atom gains electrons
  15. what is an ionic bond?
    • an attraction between a cation and an anion.
    • when electrons are transferred between atoms
  16. what is a covalent bond?
    formed when atoms share electrons
  17. polar molecules
    • slightly positive and negative ends
    • formed when electrons are not shared equally in covalent bonds
    • Water
    • Strongest
  18. hydrogen bond
    • bond between water
    • important for protein and nucleic acid structure
    • Weakest bond
  19. when does a chemical reactions occur
    when chemical bonds form or break among atoms, ions, or molecules
  20. reactants
    the starting material of a reaction
  21. products
    are the substances formed at the end of the chemical reaction
  22. synthesis reaction
    A + B ---> AB
  23. decomposition
    AB ---> A +B
  24. Exchange reaction or double displacement
    AB + CD ---> AD + CB
  25. reversible reaction
    • A + B <--> AB
    • the products can change back to the reactants
  26. electrolytes
    substances that release ions in water
  27. acids
    electrolytes that dissociate to release hydrogen ions in water
  28. bases
    substances that release ions that van combine with hydrogen ions
  29. salts
    electrolytes formed by the reactions between and acid and a base
  30. what does pH mean
    indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
  31. what is a neutral pH
    pH 7, indicateds equal concentration of H+ and OH-
  32. what is an acidic pH
    less than 7, indicates greater concentration of H+
  33. what is a basic/alkaline pH
    pH greater than 7, indicates a greater concentration of OH-
  34. how to pH levels increase
    they increase in tens 10, 100, 1,000
  35. what do organic molecules contatin?
    they contain Carbon and Hydrogen, and are usually larger than inorganic molecules
  36. what do organic molecules dissolve in?
    in water and organic liquids
  37. what are some organic molecules
    carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid
  38. inorganic molecules
    • generally do not contain Carbon
    • usually dissociate in water forming ions
  39. examples of inorganic molecules
    water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inorganic salts

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