Developmental Psychology Unit 3

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  1. Define myelination and its purpose
    Growth of neural fibers and a coating of the fibers with a fatty myelin. This increases brain efficiency, particularly relating to memory
  2. Define lateralization and provide an example
    The specialization of the left and right brain hemispheres. By age 3, most children's brains have a left hemisphere that specializes in logical reasoning, and a right hemisphere that specializes in spatial-visual information and non-verbal tasks
  3. Describe development of the prefrontal cortex in early childhood and how this development relates to behavior
    The PfCx does not begin the majority of its development around age 3 or 4. Considering the PfCx is responsible for logical planning and impulse control, this explains why 2-year-olds are more irrational than 3 to 5-year-olds
  4. Distinguish between gross motor and fine motor skills, and when they develop
    Gross motor skills involve movement of large muscle groups, and advances in gross motor skills are associated in brain development, especially enhanced myelination, neuron connections in areas of the brain that are responsible for balance and coordination. Fine motor skills involve fine muscle movements that are more limited and controlled (e.g. eating with a fork or spoon, tying shoes, cutting with scissors). Ages 2 to 3 are when most gross and fine motor skills develop
  5. Describe recent trends in childhood obesity
    National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys - from 1971 through 2006 - show an increase in childhood obesity from ages 2 to 19 years, with an average 3x to 4x increase
  6. Describe research on the effects of bilingualism on children
    If adequate input of a second language (roughly greater than 25% of all input) is given, then a child will be able to become fluent in both languages
  7. Define the terms phonology, phoneme, phonemic awareness, syntax and pragmatics
    • Phonology: the study of how sounds function in a language system
    • Phoneme: the smallest unit of sound that can affect meaning (such as the "K" sound in "cat")
    • Phonemic awareness: knowing that words are made up of sounds in a sequence
    • Syntax: the basics of word order
    • Pragmatics: the appropriate use of language to communicate in social situations (e.g. telling a joke, entering a conversation, interrupting)
  8. Identify the two broad categories of skills important for emergent literacy
    • 1. Skills related to understanding sounds and codes such as knowing that letters have names, that sounds are associated with letters, and that words are made up of sounds in a sequence
    • 2. Oral language skills such as expressive and receptive vocabulary, knowledge of syntax, and the ability to understand and tell stories
  9. Identify ways in which families and educators can help promote literacy development
    • 1. Read with your children
    • 2. Choose appropriate books and stories
    • 3. Use stories as a springboard for conversations
    • 4. Communicate with families about the goals and activities of your program
    • 5. Involve families in decisions about literacy activities
    • 6. Identify and build on strengths the families already have
    • 7. Provide home activities to be shared with family members
  10. Describe the characteristics of Piaget’s preoperational stage (semiotic function, reversible thinking, conservation, egocentrism), and the implications for early childhood education
    • This stage goes on from roughly ages 2 to 7, and involves:
    • 1. Understanding and use of symbols (pictures, letters, numbers, actions)
    • 2. Deferred imagination (imitating actions/sounds of people/objects not present)
    • 3. Rapid development of language (vocabulary expands from about 200 to 20,000 words)
    • 4. One-way logic, or lack of "reversible thinking" (can't think about the steps of a process in reverse)
    • 5. Lack of understanding conservation (i.e. 50mL water in a cylinder is the same as 50mL water in a bowl, even if they look different)
    • 6. Difficulty decentering (unable to consider more than one aspect of a situation at a time)
    • 7. Egocentric (unable to understand other viewpoints)
    • 8. Speaking in collective monologues (speaking about what they are doing, even if no one is paying attention)
  11. Describe Vygotsky’s ideas regarding private speech, and the implications of these ideas for the classroom
    Vygotsky believes that private speech (talking to yourself) guides cognitive development by moving children toward self-regulation (the ability to anticipate the future, and to plan, monitor, and guide one's own thinking and problem solving)
  12. Distinguish between domain-specific and domain-general knowledge
    Domain-general knowledge involves general cognitive abilities such as processing speed that explain performance on all cognitive tasks. Domain-specific knowledge applies to specific cognitive abilities (e.g. the domain of visual perception, language, or spatial reasoning)
  13. Describe characteristics of attention and memory in early childhood
    Attention starts out requiring large amounts of effort to go into processes, but practice can lower the amount of attention needed as the process nears automaticity. Memories also become easier to process with new strategies (i.e. children learning rehearsal strategies around ages 5 or 6, or splitting up strings of letters into 3-letter chunks) and scripts as general guidelines for processes (a scripted memory for going to a fast food restaurant can be applied to most fast food restaurants)
  14. Define theory of mind and describe characteristics of autism spectrum disorder
    • Theory of mind: an understanding of how mental processes work (organizing toys by color vs. by shape)
    • Autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed using three criteria: (a) significant, persistent deficits in social communication and interactions, (b) restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, and (c) symptoms must be present in early childhood (according to the DSM-5's proposed revisions)
  15. Distinguish between child-centered and academic preschools
    Child-centered preschools, using programs such as Montessori and Reggio Emilia's, have physical and social environments that are based on the developmental needs of the whole child, encouraging self-paced exploration, discovery, pretend play, artistic expression, and knowledge construction. Academic preschools emphasize spending time doing teacher-led activities such as counting, practicing letters, learning shapes, studying word sounds, and even reviewing homework
  16. Describe Head Start/Early Head Start and the research on program outcomes
    Head start was created with the aim to provide educational experiences to better prepare children from low-income homes for school, including education, medical and dental care, some meals, and family social services. Programs that emphasized self-esteem and social emotional development resulted in less absences and more independent work. Programs that emphasized academics resulted in more persistance and scored higher on achievement tests. The longer children participated in these programs, the better they'd do in school, and the higher their chances were of completing high school
  17. Describe research on retention and social promotion
    Retention (holding a student back a year) provides a more equalized learning environment that may be easier on the teachers and retained students, or an environment that places importance on academic success for students who don't want to be retained. Social promotion (passing students on to the next grade with their peers), however, helps with self-esteem and leads to higher success rates for those except the children who need the most help
  18. Develop recommendations for parents regarding electronic media in the home
    • 1. Integrate education TV programming with entertainment
    • 2. Find developmentally approriate computer activities
    • 3. Come to understand the TV/computer material almost as well as, if not better, than your child
    • 4. Regulate the amount of electronic media that is used
  19. Describe children’s use of problem-solving strategies in early childhood
    • Children may find a strategy, but fail to employ it when they should (production deficiency). This can be overcome by instruction or discovery of more effective strategies
    • Overlapping wave theory - when a child tries an effective strategy, followed by other strategies that may be more or less effective, forgetting the least effective strategies over time until only the most effective strategy or strategies remain
  20. Distinguish between self-concept (real self, ideal self) and self-esteem and characteristics of these concepts in early childhood
    • Self-concept is the mental picture we have of ourselves
    • By age 3-1/2, children can use concrete terms (I have blue eyes), specific behaviors (I can run fast), possessions (I have a puppy) and preferences (I like ice cream), as well as psychological terms (I feel happy)
    • It is difficult for young children to form an ideal self and therefore separate it from their real self, making their self-concepts appear disjointed and unstable
  21. Describe self-regulation and how positive behavior supports work in a classroom setting
    • Self-regulation is the ability to voluntarily control our thoughts and actions to achieve personal goals and respond to environmental contingencies
    • This includes abilities such as inhibiting behavior when necessary, and focusing while in a distracting environment
    • Children who are neither over-controlled or under-controlled exhibit higher self-regulation, and optimal self-regulation is more indicative of healthier development and success
  22. Describe the development of perspective-taking, empathy, and sympathy in early childhood
    • Perspective-taking is the ability to imagine what other people are thinking or feeling, and it develops throughout childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood.
    • Empathy is the ability to understand what another person is feeling and experience similar emotions. Empathy is believed to begin developing around age 2 or 3, but is limited to familiar people and situations at younger ages
    • Sympathy involves feeling sorry or concerned for another person because of the negative emotions they are experiencing
  23. Describe trends in aggression in young children
    • Instrumental aggression is an inadvertent expression of aggression, most often a by-product of poor self-control and having a specific goal in which victims of the aggression are merely in the way
    • Hostile aggression involves behaviors intended to harm another person, physically or verbally. Aggression is more common in boys than girls, is heritable (according to twins studies), and can be learned through direct reinforcement or modeling
    • Relational aggression involves damaging a peer's social status and/or relationship (i.e. insults, gossip, exclusion)
    • Hostile and relational aggression are more common among older children, whereas younger children mostly exhibit only instrumental aggression
  24. Define gender identity, and describe some of the influences on gender identity development
    • Gender identity is the sense of self as male or female as well as the beliefs one has about gender roles and attributes
    • Biological factors such as males being more aggressive and females being more nurturing may lead to particular play styles;behaviors for their own sex are modeled by observing and interacting with parents, siblings, peers, and cultural models such as toys, TV/advertising, and films. Gender schemas are also formed to represent what it means to be male or female
  25. Describe trends in play and friendships and Parten’s six forms of play
    • Unoccupied - the child does not appear to be playing, but just observes anything that is of momentary interest
    • Onlooker - the child observes other children playing, but does not overtly enter into the play activity. The child may interact with the group of children he is observing
    • Solitary independent play - the child plays alone, even if there are other children in the room. He is not interested in or distracted by the activities of the other children
    • Parllel group activity - the child plays the same game in teh same space as other children, but she plays beside rather than with the other children
    • Associative group play - the child plays with other children and the interaction concerns a common activity. They may share play material and may attempt to control who may or may not play in teh group. All the members engage in similar if not identical activity, but there is no division of labor, and no organization of the activity of several individuals around any material goal or product. Leadership has not been established; instead each child accts as she wishes
    • Cooperative group play - children play with one another in a group that is organized for the purpose of making some material product, or of attaining a competitive goal, or of dramatizing situations of adult and group life, or of playing formal games. There is a marked sense of belonging or of not belonging to the group. Elements of division and labor, group censorship, leadership, and the subordination of individual desire to that of the group are observed
  26. Describe Baumrind’s parenting styles
    • Authoritative - high in warmth, but also exert firm control. Monitor children closely, set clear standards, and have high expectatiosn for behavior. Firm, but not harsh or unreasonable. Rational and supportive when regarding discipline, allowing give and take in disciplinary matters. Children tend to be more successful in school, both socially and academically, and have better relationships with parents
    • Authoritarian - high in control and low in warmth and responsiveness. Firm limits with expectations to follow orders without explanation or negotiation. May be harsh and punitive; reciprocity or verbal give and take is not present. Children perform less well in school, are more hostile and less popular with peers, and have lower levels of self-control and independence
    • Permissive - warm, but have little control. Fail to set standards or enforce rules for their children and avoid convlict and confrontation. Parents often view themselves merely as resources for children to use. Children tend to be immature and demanding, more impulsive, rebellious, and aggressive, as well as less socially competent and confident
    • Uninvolved - neither warm nor in control. Little effort in parenting, often are more focused on own needs than the needs of the children. Can involve neglect or rejection of children. Children are insecure in their attachments to others, noncompliant, aggressive, and withdrawn. In adolescence, they are more likely to be involved in risky or delinquent behavior, suffer disruptions in social and cognitive development, and perform poorly in school
  27. Identify the various types of discipline. Which are most effective?
    • Inductive discipline - emphasizes positive, prosocial behavior and involves strategies such as reasoning, negotiating, explaining, and eliciting input from children. Includes setting limits and demonstrating logical consequences. Believed to be highly effective because it helps children understand why their behavior was wrong and fosters empathy for their victims and remorse for their actions
    • Withdrawal of love - attempt to gain compliance by withholding affection or ignoring or rejecting (e.g. isolation or showing dislike). May be effective in the short term, but may create a fear of rejection and abandomnent
    • Power assertion - attempt to stop behavior by making demands or threats, or by withdrawing privileges. Includes forms of punishment, such as spanking, slapping, and shaking. Some forms may be necessary when children engage in intentional acts of defiance (e.g. stealing; destroying property), but should be delivered immediately and consistently so that it is logically tied to the offense in a calm, private manner, with an explanation
  28. Identify the different types of child maltreatment
    • Physical abuse (assault) - the application of unreasonable force by an adult or youth to any part of a child's body
    • Sexual abuse - involvement of a child, by an adult or youth, in an act of sexual gratification, or exposure of a child to sexual contact, activity or behavior
    • Neglect - Failure by a parent or caregiver to provide the physical or psychological necessities of life to a child
    • Emotional harm - Adult behavior that harms a child psychologically, emotionally or spiritually
    • Exposure to family violence - Circumstances that allow a child to be aware of violence occurring between a caregiver and his/her partner or between other family members
Card Set:
Developmental Psychology Unit 3
2012-02-11 08:34:02
developmental child adolescent psychology

According to the text by Woolfolk & Perry (2012)
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