the lowest frequencey component of a complex periodic wave.
the repetition rate of a complex periodic wave. It is the vibrating frequency of the vocal folds (1st harmonic)
whole number multiples of F0
A peak of resonance in the vocal tract, formants are displayed in a wide-band spectorgram as broad bands of energy.
The resonance frequencies of the vocal tract are commonly referred to as F1, F2, F3.
An acoustic filter passes or blocks components of osund of different frequencies. For ex, low-acoustic filter blocks the high-freq components of a wave, and passes the low frequency components.
Time b/w the release of a stop consonant and phonation (time required to initiate sound). Lead (voicing b4 the release)
Lag (voicing after the stop release)
Zero ( some overlapping)
VOT- Voice Onset Time
Sibliants are high or low intensity?
Non- Sibliants are high or low intensity?
F1: tongue height
Increase tongue height = ?
Regarding F1, decrease tongue height =?
Regarding F1, higher the tongue, _____ lip aperture
Regarding F1, the lower the tongue, ______lip aperture
some vowels are inherently longer than other. Tendency for duration to increase as f1 increases.
Instrinsic vowel duration
The wider the mouth opening, the ___ the duration
lip protrusion=longer oral cavity= ?
Amplitude by time
amplitude by frquency
amplitude by frequency by time
what does not account for differences between long and short vowels
What is directly related to how wide the speakers mouth is? (ie Intensity)
Dynamic information is sufficient to ID. Beginning and end of the vowel has important information
This resembles vowels and are characterized by changing formant frequencies particulary F2 & F3
glides: /w/ (low F2) and /j/ (high F2)
liquids:/r/ (low F3) and /l/ (high F3)
are examples of
/w/ has a _____ F2 and /j/ has a F2
/r/ has a ____ F3 and /l/ has a ____ F3
short transitions cue
long transitions cue
very long transitions cue
The following stops /p/ /t/ /k/ are voiceless or voiced
The following stops /b/ /d/ /g/ are voiceless or voiced
What is distingueshed by silent gaps, noise bursts, rise/fall and change in F1?
Assumption that each consonant has a characteristic and fixed frequency position, or locus. (Silence 1/2 transition and then they were able to ID sound)if whole transition was maintained it was IDed as different sound
Sounds are distinguished by
Manner place and voicing
What group of sounds are characterized by the presence of nasal murmur, presence of nasal resonances (lowers F1 of neighboring vowels)
nasals (m,n ing)
What group of sounds are characterized by the longer duration for voiceless (rupee vs. ruby), longer when following vowel is stressed (CONtent vs. conTENT)
What group of sounds are determined by the preceding vowel (shorter duration = unvoiced "lip", longer= voiced "lib"