BIOL 302 ch28 and 29.txt

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BIOL 302 ch28 and 29.txt
2010-04-06 13:30:39
anatomy reproduction chapter 28 29

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  1. The reproductive system is dormant until�
  2. What are the male and female primary sex gonads
    Testes, ovary
  3. What are the male and female steroidal hormones
    M: androgens / F: estrogens and progesterone
  4. What begins the signal for puberty
  5. Where is gnrh released from
  6. Gnrh stimulates the release of __ and __
    FSH and LH
  7. ___ have receptors for gnrh
  8. Where are FSH and LH released from
    Anterior pituitary
  9. What are the 2 phases of the ovarian cycle
    Follicular and luteal
  10. Primordial follicles are present ___
    At birth
  11. What causes primordial follicles to develop into primary follicles
  12. After stimulation of FSH, primary follicles develop into ___
    Secondary follicles
  13. Secondary follicles produce __ and ___
    Inhibin and estrogen
  14. Inhibin and estrogen inhibit ___ so other follicles cant develop
  15. Only one secondary follicle becomes the ___ follicle
    Mature (graafian)/dominant
  16. __ stimulates the growth of the dominant follicle
  17. A gamete is released from the mature follicle during ___
  18. The corpus luteum produce ____ and ___ that contribute to the development of the functional layer
    Progesterone and estrogens
  19. If fertilization occurs, ___ helps corpus luteum survive
  20. Corpus luteum becomes ___ if no fertilization occurs
    Corpus albicans
  21. Corpus albicans decreases progesterone, esterone, and inhibin, increase ___, ___, and ___
    Gnrh, FSH, and LH
  22. What are the 2 layers of the uterus
    Functional and basal
  23. The ___ layer sloughs off during the menstrual phase
  24. During menstruation, progesterone and estrogen decrease� ____ increase, choking the arteries of uterus�functional layer dies
  25. During the ___ phase, estrogen causes ___ of the functional layer
    Preovulatory, proliferation
  26. If fertilization occurs, ___ and ___ levels increase
    Progesterone and estrogen
  27. During the preovulatory phase, the ____ from growing follicles stimulate ____
    Estrogen, endometrium repair
  28. Low levels of estrogen ____, while high levels ___
    Inhibit, activate
  29. Describe the events of the LH surge
    Estrogen inc� gnrh inc� LH and FSH inc� LH causes mature follicle to rupture and release oocyte
  30. The DNA in the released (ovulated secondary) oocyte is ___
  31. ___ brings about ovulation
    LH surge
  32. The mature follicle collapses and the basement membrane breaks down during the ___ phase
    Post ovulatory
  33. ___ promotes development and maintainance of female reproductive structures
  34. Progesterone works with estrogens to ____
    Prepare endometrium for implantation
  35. Progesterone inhibits release of ___ and ___
    Gnrh and LH
  36. What prepares mammary glands to secrete milk
  37. What inhibits contractions of uterine smooth muscle
  38. Relaxin ____ of pubic symphysis and ___ cervix
    Increases flexibility, dialates
  39. Inhibin inhibits release of ___ (___ to a lesser extent)
    FSH, LH
  40. What does FSH stand for
    Follicle-stimulating hormone
  41. What does LH stand for
    Luteinizing hormone
  42. 17-beta estradiol can be found in ___ women
  43. Estriol can be found in ___ women
  44. ____: female can be born with 2mil primordial follicles, but many die as female age
  45. What is hCG
    Human chorionic gonadotropin
  46. What is the chorion
    The part of the embryo the becomes part of the placenta
  47. Hcg rescues ___ from degeneration
    Corpus luteum
  48. Corpus luteum keep __ level high to maintain functional layer so fertilized ovum can divide
  49. What is hCS
    Human chorionic somatomammotropin
  50. Hcs helps ___ and enhances ___
    Prepare mammary glands for lactation/protein synthesis (growth)
  51. Hcs decreases ___ use and increases ___ use for ATP production
    Glucose, fatty acid
  52. What establishes the timing of birth
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone
  53. Corticotropin releasing hormone increases secretion of __ and __
    Cortisol, lung surfactant
  54. Sperm formation begins ___ and continues throughout life
    During puberty
  55. Sperm is produced in __
    Seminiferous tubule
  56. Leydig cells are located ___
    Between seminiferous tubules
  57. ___ secrete testosterone
    leydig cells
  58. Where produces inhibin (FSH) and androgen-binding protein
    Sertoli cells
  59. What is another name for sertoli cells
    Sustentacular cells
  60. Sertoli cells secrete ___ and use this to push sperm to ___
    Testicular fluid, epididymis
  61. Sertoli cells provide essential __ and ___ for sperm development
    Nutrients and signals
  62. On what surface does spermatogenesis occur
    Sertoli cells
  63. What is the purpose of the blood-testis barrier
    To protect sperm from immune system
  64. Tight junctions between __ create the blood-testis barrier
    Sertoli cells
  65. A primary spermatocyte is haploid/diploid?
  66. A secondary spermatocy is haploid/diploid?
  67. Testosterone is converted to dht by ___
    5 alpha reductase
  68. 5 alpha reductase is found in the ___ and ___
    Prostate and seminal vesicles
  69. What is DHT
  70. Testosterone can inhibit ___ and gonadotrophs that produce ___
    Gnrh, LH
  71. ___ secrete androgen-binding protein
    sertoli cells
  72. What is ABP
    Androgen-binding protein
  73. Sertoli cells control number of sperm by producing ___
  74. __ and __ stimulate spermatogenesis
    FSH and testosterone
  75. __ stimulates testosterone secretion
  76. Where are androgen receptors located
    On the nuclei of sertoli cells
  77. FSH indirectly stimulates spermatogenesis through ___
  78. LH acts on __ cells
  79. ___ causes development of skeletal muscle
  80. Testosterone inc� ___... ___... leydig cells secrete less testosterone
    Gnrh dec, LH dec
  81. ___ leads to enlargement of larynx and deepening of voice
  82. ___ contributes to male pattern before birth
  83. ABP binds to ___ and makes local concentration high for ___
    Testosterone, spermatogenesis
  84. Two types of androgens
    Testosterone and dht
  85. Effect of androgen on genes
    Bind to receptor in nuclei� make complex� bind to promoter region� turn gene on
  86. ___ stimulates male development of ducts and descent of testis before birth
  87. DHT stimulates development of ___
    External genitalia
  88. In males, ___ gets converted to ___ in the brain
    Testosterone, estrogen
  89. What is anabolism
    Stimulation of protein synthesis by steroidal hormones
  90. Methods of contraception (3)
    Pill, patch, RU486
  91. The pill has ___ levels of estrogen and progestins, ___ FSH and LH
    Moderate, inhibiting
  92. ___ and ___ are complications of the patch
    blood clots, stroke
  93. RU486 is a ___ receptor blocker
  94. (RU486) Progesterone plays a role in ___ and ___ of functional layer
    implantation, maintenance
  95. Genotype: XY� Phenotype?
    Normal male, testes
  96. Genotype: XX�phenotype?
    Normal female, ovaries
  97. XXY
    Sterile male, testes
  98. Kleinfeter�s syndrome
    XXY, somewhat functional testes, mental retardation
  99. XO
    Phenotypic female, no gonads
  100. Turner�s syndrome
    XO, no gonads
  101. YO
    Die during embryonic development
  102. XYY
    Normal male, taller than avg
  103. XXX
    Female, normal intelligence
  104. >XXX
    Mental retardation, undeveloped ovaries
  105. The wolffian duct develops into male/female?
  106. The mullerian duct develops into male/female?
  107. The wolffian duct forms what 3 structures
    Vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicle
  108. The mullerian duct forms what 3 structures
    Uterus, vagina, fallopian tubes
  109. The ___ development is the default
  110. What is SRY
    Sex determining region of Y chromosome
  111. SRY is present in ___, but not in ___
    Males, females
  112. Hcg stimulates leydig cells to produce ___, helping wolffian duct develop
  113. SRY �tells� sertoli to produce ____ inhibiting substances, resulting in ___
    Mullerian, apoptosis
  114. The efferent ductules become ____
    Seminiferous tubules
  115. During female development, ___ and ___ are absent
    SRY, mullerian inhibit substances
  116. Why is female development the default
    Embryo is constantly exposed to mother�s estrogen and progesterone
  117. Upon stimulation by testosterone, the ___ descend into scrotum
  118. What 2 compartments make up sertoli cells
    Basal and adluminal
  119. A cytoplasmic bridge remains in� (3)
    secondary spermatocytes, early spermatids, and late spermatids
  120. Why is the cytoplasmic bridge present?
    So genetic material from X haploid can be transferred to deficient Y haploid for development
  121. ___ cells break down extra cytoplasm
  122. Spermatoza are motile/nonmotile?
  123. In males, the glans area develops into the ___
  124. In males, the labioscrotal swelling eventually becomes the ___
  125. In females, the glands area becomes the ___
  126. In females, the uretrhal folds and labioscrotal swelling become the ___ and ___
    Labia majora and labia minora
  127. During puberty, ___ increase
    Steroidal hormones
  128. During menopause number of ___ decrease
  129. During menopause, gonadotrophs become less sensitive to __
  130. During menopause, risk of osteoporsis increases because�
    Estrogen (which controls osteoclasts) decreases
  131. What happens when you remove testes in a genetic male?
    No testosterone, no DHT� internally female� externally female
  132. What happens when you implant testes in a genetic female
    Testosterone and DHT present� internally make� externally male
  133. What happens to a mutant lacking the 5 alpha reductase
    Testosterone present, no DHT� internally male, externally female
  134. 5 factors that increase susceptibility to breast cancer
    1) family. 2) no children or children after 35. 3) ionic radiation. 4) excessive alcohol. 5) smoking
  135. 3 drugs for breast cancer
    1) tamoxifen. 2) herceptin. 3) evista
  136. Tamoxifen is an ___ antagonist (blocks ___)
    Estrogen, receptor
  137. Herceptin is a monoclonal ___ that targets ___ on breast cancer cells
    Antibody, antigen
  138. Evista blocks ___ receptor in breasts and uterus, activating ___ receptor in bone
    Estrogen, estrogen
  139. What is testicular cancer
    Cancer of spermatogenic cells
  140. What is the leading cause of death in men
    Prostate disorders
  141. During endometriosis, endometrial cells grow outside uterus in response to ___ and ___
    Estrogen and progesterone
  142. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes indicate increased susceptibility to ___
    Breast cancer
  143. A mutation in the p53 gene (a tumor suppressor) can be detected by ___
  144. Cervical cancer is associate with __
  145. A pap smear is looking at __ cells for dysplasia