Digestion

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Anonymous
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132915
Filename:
Digestion
Updated:
2012-02-05 00:21:16
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Digestion
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Digestion
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  1. Nutrients fall into six major categories
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Minerals
    • Vitamins
    • Water
  2. glycogen
    carbo-loading
  3. calorie
    • : energy required to raise 1 g of H2O 1oC
  4. Calories
    • Food calorie
    • measured in units of Kilocalories
    • 60% heat, 40% ATP
  5. body mass index (BMI)
    • A BMI 18.5-24.9 is considered healthy
    • ~33.8% of all U.S. adults are overweight
    • (BMI 25-29.9)

    33% are obese (BMI of 30 or more)

    ~17% (or 12.5 million) of children and adolescents aged 2—19 years are obese

    Since 1980, obesity prevalence among children and adolescents has almost tripled.


  6. essential fatty acids
    • help us to absorb fat-soluble vitamins, important in cell division, fetal development, and the immune response
    • Sources: fish oils, canola oil, soybean oil, flaxseed, and walnuts

  7. essential amino acids,
    • Humans are unable to synthesize 9 or 10 amino acids
    • Sources: meat, milk, eggs, corn, beans, and soybeans
    • and a variety of minerals and vitamins, and water
  8. Minerals
    • Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus are major constituents of bone and teeth
    • Sodium, calcium, and potassium are needed for muscle contraction and the conduction of nerve impulses

    Iron is a central component of hemoglobin in the blood, and iodine is found in hormones produced by the thyroid gland

    • Animals also require trace amounts of zinc, magnesium, copper, and chromium
  9. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus
    • are major constituents of bone and teeth
  10. Sodium, calcium, and potassium
    • needed for muscle contraction and the conduction of nerve impulses
  11. Iron
    • a central component of hemoglobin in the blood, and iodine is found in hormones produced by the thyroid gland
  12. Vitamins
    • all are essential
    • organic molecules
    • required for the proper functioning of enzyme
    • They are grouped into two categories:
    • water soluble: vitamin C, B vitamin complex
    • fat soluble: A, D, E ,K
  13. 2 vitamin groups
    • water soluble: vitamin C, B vitamin complex
    • fat soluble: A, D, E ,K
  14. Water
    • All metabolic reactions occur in a watery solution
    • the principal component of saliva, blood, lymph, extracellular fluid, and cytoplasmic fluid
    • sweating, keeps people from overheating
    • Urine, which is mostly water, is necessary to eliminate cellular waste products from the
  15. digestive tasks
    • Ingestion: mouth
    • Mechanical digestion: increase surface area
    • Chemical digestion: enzymes etc
    • Absorption: transported out of digestive tract
    • Elimination: indigestible expelled
  16. digestive tract
    • oral cavity
    • salivary glands
    • pharynx
    • epiglotis
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • pancreas
    • large intestine
    • small intestine
    • rectum

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