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Chapter 1-Overview of Immune System
Who is responsible for the 1st large scale vaccination?
What are the 4 classes of pathogens our immune system protects us against?
1. Bacteria, 2. Viruses, 3. Fungi, 4. Parasites
What are the 3 levels of protection of our immune system?
1. Physical barriers, 2. Innate Responses, 3. Adaptive Responses
Soluble Molecules vs. Cell Associated
Cells soluble in tissue fluids, not directly associated all the time with another cell vs. cells stuck on tissues
What type of cells line the mucosal layer?
What are the 4 physical immune barriers?
2. Movement of material
4. Normal Flora
What are the 2 types of immunity?
Innate and Acquired (Specific, Adaptive) Immunity
What type of bond do receptor-ligand interactions have?
What does recognition involve?
Binding of one molecule to another (ligand to receptor)
(T or F) During Innate Immunity responses change with subsequent exposures.
False, they do NOT change.
Genes that encode factors
4 Facts about Innate Immunity
1. Responses do NOT change over time
2. Recognition of pathogen
3. Effector mechanisms (cells, proteins)
What triggers innate factors?
Molecules that are common to many different microbes
What are the 4 signs of inflammation?
Redness, swelling, pain, heat
What is inflammation caused by?
Response to the presence of the organism
Allow for more effector cells to enter tissue and engulf bacteria
Phagocytizes bacteria via complement proteins
What are the 2 characteristics of the aquired immune system?
1. Responses DO change over time (10-14 days for factors to be activated)
2. Highly specific
What are the 2 responses of the Acquired Immune System?
Primary & Secondary
3 Cells of Adaptive Immunity
(Antibody-mediated Immunity) -> Plamsa cell
2. Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (Cell-mediated Immunity)
3. T-helper cells
What cells are present in serum and tissues?
Where are they derived from? What cell?
Bone marrow; hematopoetic stem cell
What is Hematopoeisis?
"making more blood cells"; the constant need to replace RBC's and luekocytes
What does the stem cell give rise to?
new stem cell (self-renewal)
What does the stem cell differentiate into?
The progenitor cells give rise to what 3 lineages?
What are the 3 granulocytes?
1. Erythrocytes (RBC's)
What types of dyes (acidic or basic) do each of the granulocytes contain? What does it bind to?
: contain Basic dyes; bind to acidic
: contain Acidic dyes; bind to basic
: contain Both; bind to neither
What are the 3 cells of the erythoid lineage?
What are the 4 cells of the myeloid lineage?
3. Dendritic Cells
4. Mast Cells
What are the professional phagocytes?
3. Dendritic Cells
Where does the myeloid lineage reside?
What 2 cells make up the small cells of the lymphoid lineage?
What cells make up the large lymphocytes of the lymphoid lineage?
Natural killer (NK) cells
What do B-Cells differentiate into?
What do plasma cells secrete?
What is the T-Cells job?
What are the 2 types of T-Cells?
1. T-Helper Cells
2. T-Cytotoxic Cells
What do small lymphocytes respond specifically to?
Where do mature T & B cells circulate?
Blood & Lymph system
What do T & B cells try to pick up?
What immune system has memory?
Adaptive immune System
What immune system is the basis for vaccines?
Adaptive Immune System
What structure are vaccines designed to look like?