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disease --> impairment --> disability --> handicap
active pathology --> impairment --> functional limitation --> disability
Loss or abnormality of anatomic, physiologic, or psychologic structure or function. Secondary impairment is an impairment that originates from other pre-existing impairments
a restriction of the ability to perform at th elevel of the whole person, a physical action, activity, or task in an efficient, typically expected, or competent manner
the inability to perform or a limitation in the performance of actions, tasks, and activities usually expected in specific social roles that are customary for the individual or expected for the person's status or role in a specific sociocultural context and physical environment
key preventions in physical therapy
- primary: prevention of disease in a susceptible or potentially susceptible population through specific measures such as gneral health promotion offers
- secondary: efforts to decrease duration of illness, severity of disease, and equelae through early diagnosis and prompt intervention
- tertiary: efforts to decrease the degree of disability and promote rehabilitation and restoration of function in patients with chronic and irreversible diseases
- promotion of health, wellness, and fitness - critical foundation of TherEx. intervention!
Patient management model
examination --> evaluation --> diagnosis --> prognosis --> intervention -------> outcome
- system's review
- special tests and measures
"dynamic process in which the physical therapist makes judgements based on data gathered during the examination"
- information from the examination and evaluation lead to a label for a cluster of signs and symptoms associated with a disorder, syndrome, or category of impairment, functional limitation, or disability
- pysical therapist diagnosis is related to the patient's physical dysfunction and directs the intervention
process of determining the level of optimal improvement that may be obtained from intervention and the amount of time required to reach that level
purposeful and skilled interaction of the physical therapist with the patient using various methodsand techniques to produce changes in the patient's condition consistent with the evalauation diagnosis, and prognosis
3 components of intervention
- Coordination, communicaon, and documentation
- Patient-related instruction
- Procedural interventions
Factors that can influence outcomes
- health habits
- social support
- physical environment
- medical care
What is therapeutic exercise?
therapeutic exercise included activities and techniques to improve physical function and health status resulting from impairments by identifying specific performance goals that allow a patient to achieve a higher functional activity level in a variety of situations
systematic performance or execution of planned physical movements, postures, or activities intended to enable the patient/client to:
- remediate or prevent impairments
- enhance function
- reduce risk
- optimize overall health
- enhance fitness and well-being
- range of motion
- proprioception adn coordination
What might therapeutic exercise include?
- strength, power, and endurance training
- aerobic/ endurance conditioning
- breathing retraning
- balance, coordination, agility training
- body mechanics and posture training
- muscle lengthening
- range of motion
- gait and locomotor training
- movement pattern training
What should the PT consider?
- what impairments does the patient have?
- how do these impairments link to the decreased function and disability in the patient?
- what exercises/ activities will improve function and disability by addressing the appropriate impairment?
- can the treatment/ intervention improve function or prevent functional loss?
- possible negative effects
- cost-benefit ratio
- patient goals
variables to consider
- which elements of the movement system need to be addressed to restore function?
- which activities or techniques are chosen to achieve a funcitonal outcome, including sequence within an exercise session, and the sequence of progression in a total plan of care?
- what is the purpose of each specific activity or technique chosen?