renal system

Card Set Information

Author:
Siobhan
ID:
132966
Filename:
renal system
Updated:
2012-02-05 10:34:39
Tags:
renal system
Folders:

Description:
renal system
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Siobhan on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Osmolarity
    • : conc of dissolved substances in cells and in their extracellular environment
  2. Excretion
    • or the removal of unwanted substances from the body
    • Urinary systems produce urine, which contains the waste products of cellular metabolism

  3. urinary system functions
    • Regulating blood levels of ions
    • Maintaining proper pH of the blood
    • Regulating the water content of the blood
    • Retaining important nutrients such as glucose
    • Eliminating cellular waste products such as urea
    • Secreting substances that help regulate blood pressure and blood oxygen levels

    b p w n w r

  4. urea formation and execretion
    • 1. protiens in food are digested
    • 2. amino acids are carried in the blood to body cells
    • 3. cells convert the amino groups (-NH2) to ammonia (NH3), which is carried in the blood to the liver
    • 4. The liver converts ammonia to urea, which is less toxic
    • 5. Urea is carried in the blood to the kidneys
    • 6. in kidney nephrons, urea is filtered into the urine

  5. The renal system: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
    • Kidneys are paired organs
    • Blood enters each kidney through the renal artery
    • Blood exits through the renal vein after filtration
    • Urine leaves each kidney through the ureter
    • The ureter transports urine to the bladder
    • urethra, a single tube that conducts urine outside the body
  6. kidney structure
    renal cortex, renal medula, renal pelvis
  7. renal cortex
    solid outer layer of kidney
  8. renal medulla
    an inner layer that surrounds a branched, funnel-like chamber called the renal pelvis
  9. renal pelvis
    • collects urine and funnels it into the ureter
  10. Nephrons
    • The renal cortex of each kidney is made up of more than 1 million microscopic filters called nephrons
    • Each nephron has two major parts
    • The glomerulus, which is a dense knot of capillaries where fluid is filtered out of the blood through the porous capillary walls
    • A long, twisted tubule, where urine formation occurs
  11. 2 parts of nephrons
    glomerulus, tubule
  12. glomerullus
    • in nephron.
    • which is a dense knot of capillaries where fluid is filtered out of the blood through the porous capillary walls
  13. tubule
    • in nephron
    • where urine formation occurs
    • 4 major parts- Bowmans capsule, proximal tubule, look of Henle, distal tubule, collecting ducts
  14. major sections of tubule
    Bowmans capsule, proximal tubule, look of Henle, distal tubule, collecting ducts

  15. How Is Urine Formed and Concentrated?
    • Filtration, during which water and most small dissolved molecules are filtered out of the blood
    • Tubular reabsorption, the process by which water and necessary nutrients are restored to the blood
    • Tubular secretion, during which wastes and excess ions that still remain in the blood are secreted into the urine
  16. Filtration
    • stage 1.
    • water and most small dissolved molecules are filtered out of the blood. from glomerular capillaries into the Bormans capsule of the nephron
  17. Tubular reabsorption,
    • stage 2
    • the process by which water and necessary nutrients are restored to the blood drom the proximal tubule
  18. Tubular secretion,
    • which wastes and excess ions that still remain in the blood are secreted into the urine
    • additional wastes are actively transported into the proximal and distal tubules from the blood

  19. The loop of Henle
    • The filtrate is exposed to the osmotic gradient (high salt). Water leaves the filtrate by osmosis and enters the surrounding capillaries
    • Filtrate becomes urine when it enters the collecting duct, and can be more than four times as concentrated as the blood
  20. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • ADH is carried in the bloodstream
    • stimulates distal tubule and collecting ducts to insert more aquaporins
    • The abundance of aquaporin membranes determines the permeability of the membranes to water

  21. kidneys regulate blood pressure and O2 levels
    • When blood pressure falls (ie excessive bleeding), the kidneys release the enzyme renin into the bloodstream
    • Renin catalyzes the formation of the hormone angiotensin in the blood
  22. Angiotensin
    • Angiotensin helps combat low blood pressure in three major ways
    • It stimulates the proximal tubules to reabsorb more Na+ into the blood, causing water to follow by osmosis
    • It stimulates ADH release
    • It causes arterioles to constrict, which directly increases blood pressure
  23. erythropoietin
    • When blood oxygen levels are low, the kidneys release the hormone erythropoietin
    • This hormone stimulates the bone marrow to make more red blood cells
    • The higher number of red blood cells increases the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview