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Simple Squamous Epithelium
- Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped cenral nuclei.
- Function: diffusion and filtration where protection is not important.
- Secretes lubricating substances in serosae.
- Kidneys, air sacs of lungs, lining of heart, lining of ventral body cavity (serosae).
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
- Single layer of cubelike cells with large spherical central nuclei.
- Function: secretion and absorption.
- Kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small glands, ovary surfaces.
Simple Columnar Epithelium
- Single layer of tall cells with round oval nuclei.
- May contain mucus-secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells)
- Function: absorption, section of mucus, enzymes, ciliated type propels mucus or reproductive cells by ciliary action
- Nonciliated lines: most of digestive tracts (stomach to anal), gallbladder, excretory ducts of some glands
- Ciliated lines: small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus.
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
- Single layer of cells differing in heights, some may not reach free surface
- Nuclei seen at different levels
- May contain mucus-secreting cells and cilia
- Function: secretion particularly of mucus, propulsion of mucus by ciliary action.
- Nonciliated: in male's sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands.
- Ciliated: lines the trachea and most of upper respiratory tract.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
- Thick membrane of several cell layers
- Basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active, in mitosis and produce more superficial layers.
- Surface cells are flattened (squamous) in keratinized type and dead.
- Function: protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion.
- Nonkeratinized: forms moist linings of esophagus, mouth, and vagina.
- Keratinized: forms the epidermis of skin (a dry membrane).
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
- Two layers of cubelike cells
- Function: protection.
- Largest ducts of sweat glands, mammary glands, and salivary glands.
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
- Several cell layers, basal cells usually cuboidal, superficial cells elongated and columnar.
- Function: protection, secretion.
- Rare in the body, small amounts in male urethra and in large ducts of some glands.
- Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal.
- Basal cells cuboidal or columnar, surface cells dome shaped or squamouslike, depending on degree of organ stretch.
- Function: stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine.
- Lines ureters, bladder, and part of urethra.