Digestive System

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Author:
Siobhan
ID:
132988
Filename:
Digestive System
Updated:
2012-02-05 12:27:42
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Digestive System
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Digestive System
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  1. Nutrients fall into six major categories
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Minerals
    • Vitamins
    • Water
  2. glycogen
    carbo-loading
  3. calorie
    • energy required to raise 1 g of H2O 1oC
  4. Calories
    • Food calorie
    • : measured in units of Kilocalories
    • 60% heat, 40% ATP
    • 70 Cal/hr at rest and up to 20 Cal/min during exercise
  5. body mass index (BMI):
    • is a common tool for estimating a healthy weight

    A BMI 18.5-24.9 is considered healthy

    • ~33.8% of all U.S. adults are overweight
    • (BMI 25-29.9)

    33% are obese (BMI of 30 or more)

    ~17% (or 12.5 million) of children and adolescents aged 2—19 years are obese

    Since 1980, obesity prevalence among children and adolescents has almost tripled.


  6. essential fatty acids
    • help us to absorb fat-soluble vitamins, important in cell division, fetal development, and the immune response
    • Sources: fish oils, canola oil, soybean oil, flaxseed, and walnuts

  7. essential amino acids,
    • Humans are unable to synthesize 9 or 10 amino acids
    • Sources: meat, milk, eggs, corn, beans, and soybeans
    • and a variety of minerals and vitamins, and water
  8. Kwashiorkor
    • is Caused by Protein (albumin)
    • Deficiency
  9. Minerals
    • Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus are major constituents of bone and teeth
    • Sodium, calcium, and potassium are needed for muscle contraction and the conduction of nerve impulses

    Iron is a central component of hemoglobin in the blood, and iodine is found in hormones produced by the thyroid gland

    • Animals also require trace amounts of zinc, magnesium, copper, and chromium


  10. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus
    major constituents of bone and teeth
  11. Sodium, calcium, and potassium
    • are needed for muscle contraction and the conduction of nerve impulses
  12. Iron
    • is a central component of hemoglobin in the blood, and iodine is found in hormones produced by the thyroid gland
  13. Vitamins
    • all are essential
    • organic molecules
    • required for the proper functioning of enzyme
    • They are grouped into two categories:
    • water soluble: vitamin C, B vitamin complex
    • fat soluble: A, D, E ,K
  14. Pellagra
    Is Caused by Niacin Deficiency
  15. Rickets
    • Rickets Is Caused by Vitamin D Deficiency
    • bones not strong
  16. Water
    • All metabolic reactions occur in a watery solution
    • the principal component of saliva, blood, lymph, extracellular fluid, and cytoplasmic fluid
    • sweating, keeps people from overheating
    • Urine, which is mostly water, is necessary to eliminate cellular waste products from the
  17. human digestive tract
    • oral cavity- tongue, teeth
    • salivary glands
    • pharynx
    • epiglottis
    • larynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • pangcreas
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • rectum
  18. pharynx
    shares digestive and respiratory passage
  19. salivary glands
    secrete lubricating fluid and starch digesting enzymes
  20. epiglottis
    • covers larynx.
    • directs food down esophagus
  21. liver
    • secretes bile
    • ammonia into urea detoxifies harmful substances produces a liquid called bile, which is stored in the gallbladder
  22. gallbadder
    stores bile from liver
  23. pancreas
    • secretes pH buffers and several digestive enzymes
    • produces sodium bicrarbonoate and digestive enzymes, and releases them into the small intestine via the pancreatic duct
  24. stomach
    • Food in the stomach is gradually converted to chyme, a mixture of partially digested food and stomach secretions
    • Most chemical digestion occurs in the small intestine
    • Liver: ammonia into urea detoxifies harmful substances produces a liquid called bile, which is stored in the gallbladder


  25. cells in small intestine lining.
    produce enzymes that complete carbohydrate and protien digestion
  26. digestive secretions into the small intestine
    • Liver- Bile
    • Gallbladder- stores/releases bile into small intestine though bile dict
    • Stomach- release chyme into small intestine
    • Pancreas- produces sodium bicarbonate and digestive enzymes, and releases them into the small intestine via the pancreatic duct
    • Cells in small intestine lining: produce enzymes that complete carb and protien digestion

  27. The pancreas has two types of cells
    • One type produces hormones that regulate blood sugar
    • The other type secretes pancreatic juice:
    • Water
    • Sodium bicarbonate, which neutralizes the acidic chyme
    • Digestive enzymes
    • Amylase, which breaks down carbohydrates
    • Lipases, which break down lipids
    • Proteases, which break down proteins and peptides


  28. pancreatic juice:
    • Waterm sodium bicarbonate, which neutralizes the acidic chyme
    • Digestive enzymes
    • Amylase, which breaks down carbohydrates
    • Lipases, which break down lipids
    • Proteases, which break down proteins and peptides

  29. Amylase
    • which breaks down carbohydrates
    • pancreatic juice
  30. Lipases
    • pancreatic juice
    • breaks down lipids
  31. Proteases
    • which break down proteins and peptides '
    • pancreatic juice

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