Chapter 3/preg. and prenatal development
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What 4 parts make up the female reproductive system
- ovary: holds the ova
- fallopian tube: where fertilization occurs
- uterus: where the zygote inplants
- cervix: holds baby in
Describe what happens once the first sperm penetrate the egg?
it forms a crust so that no other sperm can penetrate, if 2 penetrate it will result in a misscarriage
What are dizygotic twins or paternal twins
two different eggs (one from each ovary), two different sperm, 2 seperate zygotes, 2 different babies, different DNA
What are monozygotic twins or identical twins
one egg, one sperm, 2 babies that are identical due to the splitting of the same egg into 2. exact same DNA
What are the 3 stages of pregnancy
- germinal: zygote to 2 weeks, blastula forms
- embryonic: 2 weeks to 8 weeks, most important development (spontaneous abortion happens here)
- fetal: 8 weeks to birth, growth
What is the germinal stage of pregnancy
- zygote to 2 weeks
- forms a blastula (hollow ball that forms around the zygote)
What is a blastula
hollow ball that forms around the zygote in the germinal phase of pregnancy zygote - 2 weeks
What is the embryonic stage of pregnancy
2 weeks to 8 weeks, major development occurs and the most important time of a pregnancy (spontaneous abortion happens here)
What is the fetal phase of pregnancy
8 weeks till birth, time or growth, lungs grow more at the end
when does spontaneous abortion/miscarriages happen?
embryonic phase of pregnancy
what is lanugo? when does it appear and disappear?
layer of thick downy hair or fur which starts at 4 months and goes away at 7 months
what happens at 4 months of pregnancy
Lanugo develops, heartbeat is clear, baby may kick
What is the vernix caseosa and why does it develop? When is it formed?
protective coating for scratches which starts at 5 months
what happens at 5 months of pregnancy
vernix caseosa forms
what happens at 7 months of a pregnancy
lanugo goes away
What are the 2 principles of prenatal development
- cephalocaudal principle: head to tail
- proximodistal principle: inside to outside or near to far
What is the cephalocaudal principle
- head to tail principle
- children develop from top to bottom
What is the proximodistal principle
- near to far principle
- children develop starting inside to the outside
- internal organs develop first, hands later
What is a teratogen
- destructive influences in developing child
- i.e. drugs, alcohol, stress, smoking, plasmosis, MRSA, cancer, disease, abuse, falls, accidents, mercury, salt, chemicals, CAFFINE
What does caffine do to you?
- stimulate similar to cocaine
- CNS stimulant
what are the 3 blastocyst layers and what do they form?
- inside endoderm: organs
- middle mesoderm: muscle/blood
- outside ectoderm: Skin/hair/nails
- develops all three layers and then rolls up into a ball aroung the zygote
What is the endoderm layer of blastocyst and what does it make?
- organ cells
- inside layer of blastocyst
What is the mesoderm layer of blastocyst and what does it make?
- middle layer
- muscle and blood
What is the ectoderm layer of blastocyst and what does it form?
- outside layer
- skin, hair, nails
good prenatal care consist of what 4 things?
- thorough health history
- full medical exam
- counsel parents on potential risks
- develop a good Dr/Pt. rapport
how many pounds should a woman gain in a preganacy
What are the 3 stages is the budding process?
- labor: uterine contractions, cerviz dialates, mucus plug falls out, effacement/softening and thinning of the cervix 12 hrs
- birth: 60-90 minutes, episiotomy is the cut between anus and vagina
- afterbirth: expulsion of placents and umbilical cord, 5-30 minutes (all of it needs to come out or will become ceptic
What is labor and how long does it last?
- uterine contractions, dialated cervix
- showing = mucous plug fall out of cervix (water breaks)
- effacement = softening and thinning of the cervix
- takes on average 12 hours
what is birth and how long does it last?
- birth of the baby takes 60-90 minutes
- episiotomy = cut between vagina and anus
What is afterbirth and how long does it take to come out?
- placents and umbilical cord expulsion 5-30 minutes
- need the whole placenta out or it can become ceptic
What is the apgar test
- done at 1 minute after birth and then again at 5 minutes
- 5 scales worth 0 to 2 points
- 0 = stillborn
- 7= good
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