Medical Anthropology Test 1 (3)

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  1. transcription
  2. copying the DNA sequence into the messenger RNA
  3. intergenerational effect
  4. phenotypic characteristics are passed across generations without being specifically selected for or against (ie. blood pressure, heart dimensions and metabolism)
  5. allocation
  6. how resources are divided between life history traits
  7. senescence
  8. biological process of degeneration which adversely affects vitality and function and leads to an increased risk of death
  9. pleiotropy
  10. genes have multiple effects
  11. thrifty genotype
  12. those that allowed an individual to extract more resources from a restricted environment and/or store them; but now that we have longer lifespans, they end up leading to disease
  13. allometry
  14. the study of the relationships between functions and components of the body and body size
  15. growth phase
  16. clearly delineated phases in development
  17. infancy
  18. month 2 to end of lactation; rapid growth; feeding b;y lactation; deciduous teeth eruption; developmental milestones in physiology, behaviour and cognition
  19. childhood
  20. 3-7 years; moderate growth rate; dependency for feeding; mid-growth spurt; eruption of first permanent molar and incisor; cessation of brain growth
  21. juvenile
  22. 7-10 (girls) or 7-12 (boys); slower growth rate; independent feeding; learning of economic and social skills
  23. puberty
  24. at end of juvenile stage; increase in sex hormone secretion; reactivation of central nervous system mechanism for sexual development
  25. adolescence
  26. 5-8 years following puberty; growth spurt in weight and height; permanent tooth eruption completes; development of secondary sexual characteristics completes; socio-sexual maturation; practice in adult social, economic and sexual activities
  27. adulthood
  28. 20 years to end of child-bearing; homeostasis is physiology, behaviour and cognition, menopause for women by 50
  29. menopause
  30. the end of the ability to bear children for women
  31. neoteny
  32. slowing down of the rate of development
  33. heterochrony
  34. the timing of the appearance of a feature is altered in relation to others
  35. hypermorphosis
  36. a prolongation of time for the development of a feature leading to its relative magnification
  37. translation
  38. mRNA is decoded by the ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain that will fold into an active protein
  39. genome
  40. the entirety of an organism’s hereditary information
  41. chromosome segregation
  42. a parent’s pair of alleles split and only one is passed on to the child
  43. chromosome assortment
  44. alleles from both parents unite in random pairs; the dominant allele dictates how the traits are expressed in the phenotype
  45. epigenetic landscape
  46. a metaphor for biological development where cell fates are determined and narrowed in development much like a marble rolls down to the lowest local elevation
  47. developmental buffer
  48. environmental stressors that act as blocks against expressions of genetic variation: force the organism to choose one certain path to increase fitness
  49. life history
  50. the constellation of key characteristics including the patterns of growth, development, reproduction and mortality which define progress through life
  51. tradeoffs
  52. balancing between life history traits such as age vs size at maturity number vs quality of offspring current vs future reproduction fecundity vs lifespan
  53. developmental disruption
  54. when severe environmental influences disrupt development through interference with processes of gene expression, cell proliferation, or migration
  55. immediately adaptive responses
  56. responses which the organism must make to survive a developmental challenge
  57. predictive adaptive responses
  58. responses that are made for anticipated need or advantage later in the life course
  59. Baldwin effect
  60. behaviours that are advantageous are selected for and eventually become instinctual (heritable)
  61. fecundity
  62. the actual reproductive rate of an individual
  63. lifespan
  64. the age at death of a population
  65. offspring
  66. biological children
  67. maturity
  68. the ability to create offspring
  69. generation time
  70. the relative size of intervals of offspring production
  71. extrinsic mortality
  72. causes of death from without (ie. predation)
  73. intrinsic mortality
  74. related to how the body allocates its resources across biological functions
  75. aging
  76. time passing - getting older
  77. Bergmann’s rule
  78. mammals in colder climates are bigger because they have less surface area relative to volume and therefore loss relatively less heat
  79. Allen’s rule
  80. mammals in colder climates have shorter limbs relative to the trunk to reduce the surface area
  81. Thomson’s rule
  82. as the climate gets colder and drier, the nose gets narrower and more protuberant so it can warm and humidify the air before it reaches the lungs
  83. life cycle
  84. a period of time from one phase of growth to the next generation’s same growth phase
Card Set:
Medical Anthropology Test 1 (3)
2012-02-05 21:05:16
medical anthropology

medical anthropology
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