mw3

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Author:
mwhite3
ID:
133049
Filename:
mw3
Updated:
2012-02-05 16:28:16
Tags:
Oncology
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Description:
NUR120
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  1. Clients reaction to cancer
    Pain, Death
  2. Families reaction to cancer
    • grief
    • stress
    • supportive
    • financial
    • role change
  3. Nurses reaction to cancer
    • mine?
    • be supportive to patient and families
  4. Epidemiology of cancer
    • gender
    • site
    • age
    • race
    • geographic factors
  5. Why is incidence of cancer in men > women?
    Men have a weaker immune system
  6. Leading cause of Cancer deaths in men
    • Lung
    • Prostate
    • Colorectal
  7. Leading cause of Cancer deaths in women
    • Lung
    • Breast
    • Colorectal
  8. At what age is cancer highest?
    > 65 yrs of age
  9. In US why is mortality rate > in African Americans?
    Because it is seen in a later stage maybe due to not having ins or seeking help
  10. Primary prevention interventions
    • Avoid known potential carcinogens
    • Modify associated factors / behaviors
    • Remove at risk tissue
    • Chemoprevention
  11. Secondary prevention
    • Screeening programs
    • Genetic testing
    • Gene therapy
  12. 75% of all cancers are related to?
    environment
  13. Name some primary preventative measures
    • sunblock
    • smoking cessation
    • changes in diet
    • removing at risk tissue due to gene (braca)
    • Chemoprevention- hormone therapy to prevent from getting cancer
  14. Name some known potential carcinogens
    • smoking
    • drinking
    • pesticides
    • asbestos
  15. Name some secondary preventative measures
    • screening
    • mammogram > 40 - unless have family history, when younger need to have MRI to diagnose breast cancer
    • colonoscopy > 40 unless have family history, do every 10 yrs if clear
    • psa - blood work that cks prostate > 40 or 50
  16. Signs and symptoms of colon cancer
    • rectal bleeding
    • polyps
  17. When should you have your first pap smear?
    • When you become sexually active or start having periods
    • After 30 if never had an abnormal one can do every 3 yrs
  18. Risk factors and carcinogens (viruses)
    • CMV
    • EBV - Ebstein Barr-mono-lymphoma
    • HPV
    • HIV - decreased immune system
  19. Risk factors and carcinogens ( bacteria)
    H-pylori (risk for colon cancer or stomach cancer)
  20. Risk factors and carcinogens (host factors)
    • genetics
    • hormonal
    • immunologic mechanisms - immune system cannot fight off
  21. Risk factors and Carcinogens ( environmental factors)
    • Physical agents
    • Chemical carcinogens
    • Radiation
    • Lifestyle
  22. Risk factors and carcinogens ( dietary )
    • the more fat you eat the more estrogen and that causes lots of cancers
    • red meat and processed meat
    • char on meat when grilled
    • natural (fresh) is best
  23. Organizations involved in cancer education (Support groups)
    • American Cancer Society (ACS)
    • National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCO)
  24. How many days do red blood cells live?
    120 days
  25. What cells are not replaced?
    brain cells and neurons
  26. Labile cells ( multiply constantly through life )
    skin
  27. Cell Differentiation (orderly process)
    • Proliferating cells transformed
    • Specialization
    • structure and function
  28. How often are platelets replaced?
    Every few hours
  29. Movement through cell cycle is controlled by:
    proteins
  30. Why is cell cycle used in cancer treatment?
    Because more cycles that can be hit the better the treatment
  31. What is the best cell cycle phase to hit during treatment?
    S phase (synthesis)
  32. Euploid
    normal DNA 23 chromosomes
  33. Abnormal cell growth (Cellular changes)
    • Atrophy- down tone
    • Hypertrophy- up tone
    • Hyperplasia- up in # of cells
    • Metaplasia- scaring
    • Dysplasia- can be precancerous
    • Anaplasia
    • Neoplasia- can be benign or cancerous
  34. Characteristics of normal cells
    • limited cell division
    • specific morphology
    • small nuclear-cytopasmic ratio
    • perform specific differentiated functions
    • adhere tightly together
    • non-migratory
    • growth orderly, well-regulated manner
    • contact inhibited
    • euploid-normal DNA
  35. What is Neoplasm?
    tumor
  36. Carcinogenesis
    • Initiation- exposure (cigarettes kills off cilia)
    • Promotion- keep smoking (promotes change)
    • Progression- keeps getting bigger and bigger
  37. Benign
    • Not cancerous
    • wont spread to other areas
  38. Malignant
    cancer
  39. Malignant cell
    Anaplastic (big nucleus)
  40. What does cancer of unknown origin mean?
    can't tell what kind of cell / very hard to treat because we don't know where it came from
  41. Benign cell characteristics
    • Inappropriate cell growth
    • Specific morphology
    • Well differentiated
    • Encapsulated
    • Adhere tightly together
    • Non-migratory
    • Grow in an orderly manner
    • Euploid
  42. Malignant cell characteristics
    • Rapid or continuous cell division
    • Unlimited life span
    • Anaplastic morphology
    • Large nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
    • Lose some or all differentiated functions
    • Adhere loosely together
    • Able to migrate
    • Grow by invasion
    • Not contact inhibited
    • Aneuploid- chromosomes not normal
  43. Radical
    getting rid of everything around it
  44. Define in very simple language the cause of cancer:
    Cancer begins when an abnormal cell, after being transformed by the genetic mutation of DNA, forms a clone and begins to proliferate abnormally
  45. The single most lethal chemical carcinogen is ________
    Tobacco smoke (it accounts for at least 30% of cancer deaths)
  46. # Cruciferous vegetables that appear to reduce cancer risk are _________, __________, & ___________

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