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the study of cells
the study of tissues
Macroscopic or gross view points
is looking at bigger objects
Approach from a Regional View
looking at structures one part at a time
Approach from a Systemic View
looking at particular systems
Living Organisms share these same 6 characteristics:
-ability to react. (Irritability-Short Term). (Adaption-Long Term)
-physically moving or moving inside the body
- Increase # of cells. Increase in size. Differentiation- cells change into types, or forms, or functions
-chemical reactions happening in the body. Anabolism
- Adding molecules to make something bigger. Catabolism
- Cut bigger molecules into smaller bits.
- Reproduction- make more of ourselves
- Waste Removal- what the body eliminates
Levels of Organization:
Atoms of combination:
Complex protein Molecules:
- Water = 67%
- Proteins = 20%
- Lipids = 10%
- Carbohydrates = 3%
Made up of protein molecules
Group of cells with a function
4 primary tissue types:
When 2 or more primary tissues come together :
it becomes an Organ
When organs come together, they become organ systems
1. Integumentary System
(body hair, nails) Protection from environmental hazards; temperature control. Water maintenance.
2. Skeletal System
206 bones; support, protection of soft tissues, mineral storage, blood formation.
3. Muscular System
Locomotion, support, heat, production
4. Nervous System
Includes brain, spinal cords, and nerves coming from them. Directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems.
5. Endocrine System
directing long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems.
6. Cardiovascular System
Internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases.
7. Lymphatic System
Defense against infection and disease. Includes lymph nodes.
8. Respiratory System
Delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood.
9. Digestive System
Processing of food and absorption of organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water.
10. Urinary System
Elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products, control of pH.
11. Reproductive System
Production of sex cells and hormones.
Anytime your talking about something in anatomy, always refer to it as in anatomical position. Thats the reference point.
Isy or Itis-
Red Blood Cells:
carries oxygen. (1mm, make a cube with it, fill it with blood, that cube will have 5 million RBCs.
How many different types of cells?
separates outside from inside. Separates life from non life. Smallest structural unit of an organism.
a regulatory system.
-Organelles: Non-membrane bound: Ribosomes, Cytoskeleton, Microtubules, Microvilli, Cilia, Flagella
Function is protein synthesis. Present in the cytoplasm
gives support, structure, allows movements.
bigger in size, taking part in cellular reproduction
hair like, very small, increase surface area of a cell.
longer then microvilli, functioning to push things along a tissue or organ, propelling substances.
only one having a flagellum- found on sperm; locomotion
Membrane- Bound Organelles: Nucleus, Nucleolus, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Vesicles, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Mitochondria
control center, where DNA is stored, RBCs don’t have a nucleus.
- (ER) 2 different forms.
- Rough ER- has ribosomes attaches to it, make is look rough. Does Protein synthesis; Protein folding.
Smooth ER- synthesize lipids and carbohydrates; testorone-in testes; liver-detoxes. Lots of Smooth ER in these locations.
take products to the Golgi Apparatus
kind of like the post office, packages come from the ER, then here they get sent to particular locations.
Cleanup crew; digestion enzymes break them down; recyclers
Detox organelles; break down any toxic products in our bodies, like hydrogen peroxide.
the power house of a cell. ATP is generated here.
-3 Major types of Connections:
- 1. Tight Junction
- 2. Gap Juncion
- 3. Desmosome
lipid portions of adjacent membranes are locked together. A water proof barrier; prevents passages of ions, molecules from moving across. Find them in cells that line the digestive tract.
protein called connexon, a hollow protein. Ex. Cardiac muscle. Allows ions to move across from one cell to the next.
Another secure cell to cell connection; Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) and intercellular cement called proteoglycans-part proteins; found in the skin and cardiac muscle.