Anatomy: Cells Intro

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Anatomy: Cells Intro
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2012-02-05 18:57:01
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Anatomy
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Week 1
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  1. Cytology
    the study of cells
  2. Histology
    the study of tissues
  3. Macroscopic or gross view points
    is looking at bigger objects
  4. Approach from a Regional View
    looking at structures one part at a time
  5. Approach from a Systemic View
    looking at particular systems
  6. Living Organisms share these same 6 characteristics:
    Responsiveness-ability to react. (Irritability-Short Term). (Adaption-Long Term)

    Movement-physically moving or moving inside the body

    Growth- Increase # of cells. Increase in size. Differentiation- cells change into types, or forms, or functions

    Metabolism-chemical reactions happening in the body. Anabolism- Adding molecules to make something bigger. Catabolism- Cut bigger molecules into smaller bits.

    Respiration-Conducting respirations

    • Reproduction- make more of ourselves
    • Waste Removal- what the body eliminates
  7. Levels of Organization:
    Atoms of combination:
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
  8. Complex protein Molecules:
    • Water = 67%
    • Proteins = 20%
    • Lipids = 10%
    • Carbohydrates = 3%
  9. Cellular Level:
    Made up of protein molecules
  10. Tissue Level:
    Group of cells with a function
  11. 4 primary tissue types:
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Neural
  12. When 2 or more primary tissues come together :
    it becomes an Organ
  13. Organ Level
    When organs come together, they become organ systems
  14. ORGAN SYSTEMS:

    1. Integumentary System
    (body hair, nails) Protection from environmental hazards; temperature control. Water maintenance.
  15. 2. Skeletal System
    206 bones; support, protection of soft tissues, mineral storage, blood formation.
  16. 3. Muscular System
    Locomotion, support, heat, production
  17. 4. Nervous System
    Includes brain, spinal cords, and nerves coming from them. Directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems.
  18. 5. Endocrine System
    directing long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems.
  19. 6. Cardiovascular System
    Internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases.
  20. 7. Lymphatic System
    Defense against infection and disease. Includes lymph nodes.
  21. 8. Respiratory System
    Delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood.
  22. 9. Digestive System
    Processing of food and absorption of organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water.
  23. 10. Urinary System
    Elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products, control of pH.
  24. 11. Reproductive System
    Production of sex cells and hormones.
  25. Anatomical Position
    Anytime your talking about something in anatomy, always refer to it as in anatomical position. Thats the reference point.
  26. Epi-
    Upon or over
  27. Hypro-
    Under, beneath,
  28. Cardio-
    Heart
  29. Myo-
    Muscle
  30. Isy or Itis-
    Inflammation
  31. Red Blood Cells:
    carries oxygen. (1mm, make a cube with it, fill it with blood, that cube will have 5 million RBCs.
  32. Somatic Cells:
    Body Cells
  33. Sex Cells:
    Gametes
  34. How many different types of cells?
    220
  35. Cell Membrane:
    separates outside from inside. Separates life from non life. Smallest structural unit of an organism.
  36. Phospholipid bilayer
    a regulatory system.
  37. -Organelles: Non-membrane bound: Ribosomes, Cytoskeleton, Microtubules, Microvilli, Cilia, Flagella

    Ribosomes:
    Function is protein synthesis. Present in the cytoplasm
  38. Cytoskeleton:
    gives support, structure, allows movements.
  39. Microtubules
    bigger in size, taking part in cellular reproduction
  40. Microvilli
    hair like, very small, increase surface area of a cell.
  41. Cilia
    longer then microvilli, functioning to push things along a tissue or organ, propelling substances.
  42. Flagella
    only one having a flagellum- found on sperm; locomotion
  43. Membrane- Bound Organelles: Nucleus, Nucleolus, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Vesicles, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Mitochondria


    Nucleus:
    control center, where DNA is stored, RBCs don’t have a nucleus.
  44. Nucleolus
    RNA
  45. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • (ER) 2 different forms.
    • Rough ER- has ribosomes attaches to it, make is look rough. Does Protein synthesis; Protein folding.
  46. Smooth ER- synthesize lipids and carbohydrates; testorone-in testes; liver-detoxes. Lots of Smooth ER in these locations.
  47. Vesicles
    take products to the Golgi Apparatus
  48. Golgi Apparatus
    kind of like the post office, packages come from the ER, then here they get sent to particular locations.
  49. Lysosomes
    Cleanup crew; digestion enzymes break them down; recyclers
  50. Peroxisomes
    Detox organelles; break down any toxic products in our bodies, like hydrogen peroxide.
  51. Mitochondria
    the power house of a cell. ATP is generated here.
  52. Cellular Interconnectivity:
    -3 Major types of Connections:
    • 1. Tight Junction
    • 2. Gap Juncion
    • 3. Desmosome
  53. Tight Junction
    lipid portions of adjacent membranes are locked together. A water proof barrier; prevents passages of ions, molecules from moving across. Find them in cells that line the digestive tract.
  54. Gap Junction
    protein called connexon, a hollow protein. Ex. Cardiac muscle. Allows ions to move across from one cell to the next.
  55. Desmosome
    Another secure cell to cell connection; Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) and intercellular cement called proteoglycans-part proteins; found in the skin and cardiac muscle.

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