Genomics #4 Histone Modification.txt

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HUSOP2014
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133120
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Genomics #4 Histone Modification.txt
Updated:
2012-02-10 11:42:42
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HUSOP Gen EXAM1 Histone Modification
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genomics histone modification lecture
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  1. ________ ___________ ________ attach acetyl groups.
    Histone Acetyl Transferases
  2. _______ _______ _______ remove acetyl groups.
    Histone Deacetylase Complexes (HDACs)
  3. T/F Acetylation is irreversible.
    FALSE
  4. T/F Histone Acetylation is associated with gene activation.
    TRUE
  5. Histone tails protrude out from the histone complex,becoming a site for_____
    histone modinfication
  6. Histones Can Be Modified by ________ or ___________
    Acetylation or Methylation
  7. ______ groups can be attached to some lysines in the histones. _______ results in _____ of positive charge
    Acetyl, acetylation, loss
  8. ______ groups can be attached to some lysines or arginines in the histones. _______ation results in _____ of positive charge
    Methyl, methylation, retention
  9. T/F Any particular histone can be acetylated and methylated
    False, either-or but not both
  10. ______refers to condensed DNA
    heterochromatin
  11. Phosphorylation of a serine or threonine results in a ______charge
    Negative
  12. Phosporylation during mitosis _______ DNA
    Condenses
  13. Phosporylation during _______ results in less condensed DNA
    chromatin Remodeling
  14. _______ Decreases transcription by recruiting HDAC.
    Sumoylation
  15. ______Affects transcription by promoting/inhibiting acetylation and/or methylation of other histone sites.
    Ubiquitylation
  16. T/F Histone Ubiquitylation signals for degradation
    FALSE
  17. which peptide is bigger? Ubiqutylation or sumoylation?
    Sumoylation (100 vs 76)
  18. T/F Most histone modifications occur within the globular domains (not the tails)
    FALSE
  19. histone code hypothesis states that the combinations of modifications determines_______
    DNA accessibility
  20. 2 effects of histone modifications
    1) altered DNA accessibility 2) transcriptional protein binding or prevention
  21. _______ bind to a particular sequence in the DNA, and inhibit transcription
    repressors
  22. Repressors are a binding site for __________ ________ inhibiting transcription
    histone deactylase (HDAC)
  23. _______ are phenotype changes that occur in a cell or organism that are not due to changes in the DNA sequence
    epigenetics
  24. 4 categories of epigenetics
    1) histone modification 2) incorporation of histone protein variants 3) DNA methylation 4) MicroRNAs
  25. T/F epigentic modification are inherited
    false (can be)
  26. T/F environmental epigenetic changes may explain phenotypic differences
    TRUE
  27. histone protein variants replace ________ to affect DNA interaction
    common histone proteins
  28. DNA methylaton occurs on ________
    some cytosine nucleotides
  29. 5-methylcytosines are found in _______
    CpG islands
  30. DNA Methylation Promotes ______ _____
    Gene Silencing
  31. DNA methylation promotes gene silencing by:
    1. Preventing certain transcription factors from binding to DNA 2. Promotes the binding of methyl binding proteins, which can interact with histone deacetylases (HDACs)
  32. Methyl groups can be added by ________ DNA methyltransferases.
    de novo
  33. DNA methylation promotes gene silencing in which 2 ways
    1. Preventing certain transcription factors from binding to DNA 2. Promotes the binding of methyl binding proteins, which can interact with histone deacetylases (HDACs)
  34. Methyl groups can be added by ___ _____ DNA methyltransferases.
    de novo
  35. Methyl groups can be removed by __________
    DNA demethylases.
  36. DNA Methylation Pattern Is Inherited in which 2 ways?
    1) parental cell to daughter cell 2) from sperm or egg
  37. T/F micro RNAs code for proteins
    false
  38. micro RNA helps the silencing complex recognize its target the _________
    untranslated region of mRNA that codes for protein

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