element consists of only 1 type of atom and cannot be seperated by ordinary chemical means
What is a compound?
compound consists of 2 or more elements per represenative particle that is made or seperated by chemical reactions in definite porportions. They have chemical and physical properties that are different than their contained elements.
What is a mixture?
A mixture is 2 or more substances that are physically combines and are made or separated by physical means in any porportion.
What are the two types of mixtures?
Heterogenus - 2 or more phases
Homogenus - one have 1 phase and are uniform
What is an atom?
an atom is the smallest particle of an element found free in nature that keeps it's properties.
What does Daltons Atomic Theory state?
1. elements are made up of indivisible particles called atoms
2. atoms of the same element are the same.
3. atoms of elements combine in definite porportions by mass to produce compounds
4. In a chemical reaction atoms of elements are combined,separated or rearranged.
What are the 3 laws derived from Dalton's Atomic Theory?
Law of Definite Porportions - means same compound with same properties
Law of Multiple Porportions - different porportions mean different compounds
Law of Conservation - matter can not be created or destroyed.
What does JJ Thompsons Theory state?
Plum Pudding Model - electrons (e-) are scattered throughout the atom.
What does Rutherfords theory state?
An atom is mostly space with a dense positive charged nucleus that contains protons and neutrons. electrons are outside of the nucleus. Protons and Neutrons have a mass of 1 AMU.
What part of an atom determines its chemial behavior?
In a neutral atom how many protons and electrons are there?
a neutral atom has equal Protons and Electrons.
What are the two types of ions?
cat-ions - positive charge, more protons than electrons
anions - negative charge, more electrons than protons
What are the first three isotopes of Hydrogen (H)
Proteum - Most common form of Hydrogen
Deuterum- Heavy Hydrogen
Tritium - radioactive Hydrogen
What does the Bohr Theory state?
electrons circle the nucleus in discrete orbits with fixed energy with no more than 8 electrons in the outer most shell.
What is a quantum?
a measure of energy that is required for an electron to jump from 1 energy level to the next higher energy level.
What is the value of Planc's Constant?
What is the Speed of Light? (C)
What is the formula for the speed of light?
What is the measure of Wavelength?
The distance from peak to peak on a sine wave
What is photoelectric effect?
When a photon strikes a shiny metal, an electron is thrown off
What is Threshhold frequency?
the lowest frequency at which an electron is thrown off
What is the DeBroglie Equation?
(wavelength = planc constant/ mass*velocity)
What is the formula for Ryberg's Constant?
n= energy level
What does the Heisenberg Uncertainity Theory state?
you can not know where an object is and its velocity at the same time, only one or the other.
What do the quantum numbers n, l and and mean?
n = principle quantum number - energy level
l - angular momentum - sub level (tells shape)
= magnetic quantum # (tells orbital orientation)
= spin quantum # (tells direction)
What does the aufbau principle state?
electrons enter the lowest energy sublevels first
What does Pauli's exclusion principle state?
an orbital can describe at most 2 electrons and the electrons must have opposite spins - no 2 electrons can have the same quantum number
What does Hund's rule state?
in a sublevel, when electrons fill it, each orbital must have 1 electron in it before electrons will pair up.
What is the electron configuration for Cr (chromium)?
What is the electron configuration for Cu (Copper)
What is an Acid
an acid is anything that dissociates to form H+ ions and an anion
What is a binary acid and it's anion ends in -ide
a binary acid is a gas that combines with water to form a hydro_____ic acid (ie HCl --> HCl(aq)
an acid with an anion ending in -ate
acid forms to form a ________ic acid (ie = Nitric Acid)
an acid with an anion ending in -ite
it has one less H than a similar -ate acid creates a _____ous acid (ie Nitrous Acid)
Column 1 on the Periodic table consists of the
Alkali metals with the exception of Hydrogen
Column 2 of the Periodic table consists of the?
Alkaline Earth Metals
Columns 3 through Column 12 on the Periodic Table are called the
Column 18 on the Periodic Table consists of the...
Column 17 of the Periodic Table consists of the
The nonmetals on the Periodic Table are which
starts on column 13 at B (Boron) diagonally down to Te (Tellurium) and then Column 17 down to Iodine.
As atomic size decreases
atomic forces increase
Which columns on the Periodic Table are the S levels
Columns 1 and 2
Which columns on the Periodic Table are the P levels?
Which columns on the Perodic Table are the D levels
Columns 3-12 : remember they are 1 energy level less than the row they are on.
What is electron affinity?
the energy change associated with the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom.
what does the Wave Quantum mechanical model state?
an electron is described as a standing wave and the exact position of an electron is never known.