Chemistry Test 1

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Anonymous
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Chemistry Test 1
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2012-02-05 22:06:56
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Chemistry Basic Theory
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TCC Chem Test 1.
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  1. What is the definition of a theory?
    A theory explains what happens.
  2. What is a Law?
    A law tells what happens.
  3. What is Chemistry?
    Chemistry is the study of matter and its changes.
  4. What are the two properties of matter?
    Physical and Chemical.
  5. What are the two types of Physical Properties and what do they mean.
    • Intensive - Independent of quanity
    • Extensive - Depends on the quanity.
  6. Chemical properties are all?
    Intensive
  7. What is the two types of measurements
    • Quanitative: uses numbers
    • Qualititative: uses words
  8. When are zeros considered Significant digits?
    • Zeros are consistant when they are
    • 1. between significant digits
    • 2. trailing zeros behind the decimal place
  9. What is the unit of measure for Pressure?
    Pascals.
  10. What are the unit of measure for Energy?
    Joules
  11. What are the unit of measure for volume?
    • For solids it is measured in cubic meters
    • For Liquids it is measured in mLs
  12. What is the formula for Density?
    Density = Mass/Volume
  13. What are the 3 states of matter?
    Solid, Liquid, Gas
  14. What are the 3 groups of matter?
    • 1. Elements
    • 2. Compounds
    • 3. Mixtures
  15. What are the 7 Diatomic Elements?
    Hydrogen(H2), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), Fluorine (F2) Chlorine (Cl2), Iodine (I2), Bromine (Br2)
  16. What is an element?
    element consists of only 1 type of atom and cannot be seperated by ordinary chemical means
  17. What is a compound?
    compound consists of 2 or more elements per represenative particle that is made or seperated by chemical reactions in definite porportions. They have chemical and physical properties that are different than their contained elements.
  18. What is a mixture?
    A mixture is 2 or more substances that are physically combines and are made or separated by physical means in any porportion.
  19. What are the two types of mixtures?
    • Heterogenus - 2 or more phases
    • Homogenus - one have 1 phase and are uniform
  20. What is an atom?
    an atom is the smallest particle of an element found free in nature that keeps it's properties.
  21. What does Daltons Atomic Theory state?
    • 1. elements are made up of indivisible particles called atoms
    • 2. atoms of the same element are the same.
    • 3. atoms of elements combine in definite porportions by mass to produce compounds
    • 4. In a chemical reaction atoms of elements are combined,separated or rearranged.
  22. What are the 3 laws derived from Dalton's Atomic Theory?
    • Law of Definite Porportions - means same compound with same properties
    • Law of Multiple Porportions - different porportions mean different compounds
    • Law of Conservation - matter can not be created or destroyed.
  23. What does JJ Thompsons Theory state?
    Plum Pudding Model - electrons (e-) are scattered throughout the atom.
  24. What does Rutherfords theory state?
    An atom is mostly space with a dense positive charged nucleus that contains protons and neutrons. electrons are outside of the nucleus. Protons and Neutrons have a mass of 1 AMU.
  25. What part of an atom determines its chemial behavior?
    electron (e-)
  26. In a neutral atom how many protons and electrons are there?
    a neutral atom has equal Protons and Electrons.
  27. What are the two types of ions?
    • cat-ions - positive charge, more protons than electrons
    • anions - negative charge, more electrons than protons
  28. What are the first three isotopes of Hydrogen (H)
    • Proteum - Most common form of Hydrogen
    • Deuterum- Heavy Hydrogen
    • Tritium - radioactive Hydrogen
  29. What does the Bohr Theory state?
    electrons circle the nucleus in discrete orbits with fixed energy with no more than 8 electrons in the outer most shell.
  30. What is a quantum?
    a measure of energy that is required for an electron to jump from 1 energy level to the next higher energy level.
  31. What is the value of Planc's Constant?
  32. What is the Speed of Light? (C)
  33. What is the formula for the speed of light?
    (Wavelength/Frequency)
  34. What is the measure of Wavelength?
    The distance from peak to peak on a sine wave
  35. C
    Carbon
  36. H
    Hydrogen
  37. He
    Helium
  38. What is photoelectric effect?
    When a photon strikes a shiny metal, an electron is thrown off
  39. What is Threshhold frequency?
    the lowest frequency at which an electron is thrown off
  40. What is the DeBroglie Equation?
    (wavelength = planc constant/ mass*velocity)
  41. What is the formula for Ryberg's Constant?
    n= energy level
  42. What does the Heisenberg Uncertainity Theory state?
    you can not know where an object is and its velocity at the same time, only one or the other.
  43. What do the quantum numbers n, l and and mean?
    n = principle quantum number - energy level

    l - angular momentum - sub level (tells shape)

    = magnetic quantum # (tells orbital orientation)

    = spin quantum # (tells direction)
  44. What does the aufbau principle state?
    electrons enter the lowest energy sublevels first
  45. What does Pauli's exclusion principle state?
    an orbital can describe at most 2 electrons and the electrons must have opposite spins - no 2 electrons can have the same quantum number
  46. What does Hund's rule state?
    in a sublevel, when electrons fill it, each orbital must have 1 electron in it before electrons will pair up.
  47. What is the electron configuration for Cr (chromium)?
    [s] [d]
  48. What is the electron configuration for Cu (Copper)
  49. What is an Acid
    an acid is anything that dissociates to form H+ ions and an anion
  50. What is a binary acid and it's anion ends in -ide
    a binary acid is a gas that combines with water to form a hydro_____ic acid (ie HCl --> HCl(aq)
  51. an acid with an anion ending in -ate
    acid forms to form a ________ic acid (ie = Nitric Acid)
  52. an acid with an anion ending in -ite
    it has one less H than a similar -ate acid creates a _____ous acid (ie Nitrous Acid)
  53. Column 1 on the Periodic table consists of the
    Alkali metals with the exception of Hydrogen
  54. Column 2 of the Periodic table consists of the?
    Alkaline Earth Metals
  55. Columns 3 through Column 12 on the Periodic Table are called the
    Transition elements
  56. Column 18 on the Periodic Table consists of the...
    Noble Gases
  57. Column 17 of the Periodic Table consists of the
    Halogens
  58. The nonmetals on the Periodic Table are which
    starts on column 13 at B (Boron) diagonally down to Te (Tellurium) and then Column 17 down to Iodine.
  59. As atomic size decreases
    atomic forces increase
  60. Li
    Lithium
  61. Be
    Beryllium
  62. Na
    Sodium
  63. Mg
    Magnesium
  64. K
    Potassium
  65. Ca
    Calcium
  66. Rb
    Rubidium
  67. Sr
    Strontium
  68. Cs
    Cesium
  69. Fr
    Francium
  70. Ra
    Radium
  71. Cr
    Chromium
  72. Mn
    Manganese
  73. Fe
    Iron
  74. Co
    Cobalt
  75. Ni
    Nickel
  76. Cu
    Copper
  77. Zn
    Zinc
  78. Ag
    Silver
  79. Au
    Gold
  80. Pt
    Platinum
  81. W
    Tungsten
  82. Cd
    Cadmium
  83. Hg
    Mercury
  84. B
    Boron
  85. N
    Nitrogen
  86. O
    Oxygen
  87. F
    Fluorine
  88. Al
    Aluminum
  89. Si
    Silicon
  90. P
    Phosphorus
  91. S
    Sulfur
  92. Cl
    Chlorine
  93. As
    Arsenic
  94. Se
    Selenium
  95. Te
    Tellurium
  96. I
    Iodine
  97. Pb
    Lead
  98. Bi
    Bismuth
  99. Po
    Polonium
  100. At
    Astatine
  101. Ne
    Neon
  102. Ar
    Argon
  103. Kr
    Krypton
  104. Xe
    Xeon
  105. Ra
    Radon
  106. U
    Uranium
  107. Which columns on the Periodic Table are the S levels
    Columns 1 and 2
  108. Which columns on the Periodic Table are the P levels?
    Columns 13-18
  109. Which columns on the Perodic Table are the D levels
    Columns 3-12 : remember they are 1 energy level less than the row they are on.
  110. What is electron affinity?
    the energy change associated with the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom.
  111. what does the Wave Quantum mechanical model state?
    an electron is described as a standing wave and the exact position of an electron is never known.
  112. What are the orbital shapes for each energy level
    • S- Sphere
    • P- Dumbell
    • D- Double Dumbell
    • F- Flower

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