IMPORTANT: High reliability does not ensure validity
reputedly assess unconscious processes
most renowned projective test is the RorschachInkblot TestPROBLEMS
almost impossible to standardize
statedependent (e.g., affected by mood)
questionable reliability and validity can be dangerous when used forensically
sometimes referred to as functional analysis
A= Antecedent; B = Behavior; C = Consequence
EX. A; teased at school ->B. school refusual -> C. No teasing
the purpose of behavioral assessment is to identify the function of a maladaptive behavior and eliminate that function
example :if acting sick gets a child out of gong to school, acting sick is reinforced ,acting sick needs to be ignored, so it no longer serves the function of getting out of school positive vs. negative reinforcement
face valid: I see things or animals or people around me that others do not see
assess what somthing is
predicts the assessment
Think of it as adding something in order to increase a response.
example, adding a treat will increase the response of sitting; adding praise will increase the chances of your child cleaning his or her room.
The most common types of positive reinforcement are praise and rewards
Think of negative reinforcement as taking something negative away in order to increase a response.
strengthens a behavior because a negative condition is stopped or avoided as a consequence of the behavior.
example Driving in heavy traffic is a negative condition for most of us. You leave home earlier than usual one morning, and don't run into heavy traffic. You leave home earlier again the next morning and again you avoid heavy traffic. Your behavior of leaving home earlier is strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic.
a set of basic assumptions, a general perspective, that defines how to hypothesize and study a subject.
they specify what problems scientists will investigate and how they will go about the investigation
factors include those things that members of a family have in common. such as family income level, childprearing practices, and parents' marital status
nonshared environment (genetic paradigm)
factors believed to be distinct among members of a family. such as relationships with friends or specific events unique to a person (being on the swim team)
These are believed to be important in understanding why two siblings form the same family can be so different.
the study of the degree to which genes and environmental factors influence behavior
the total genetic makeup of an individual, consisting of inherited genes
(physical sequence of DNA)
the totality of observable behavioral characteristics, such as level of anxiety
studies seek to identify particular genes and their functions.
clinical scales (MMPI)
6/ Pa/ Paranoia /level of trust; suspiciousness/ 40
(know if the person is telling the truth)
CNS/ cannot say /questions not answered
L/ lie/ client "faking good"
Es / ego strength scale
OH / over-controlled hostility
a lengthy personality inventory that identifies individuals with states such as anxiety, depression, masculinity-feminity, and paranoia, through their true-false replies to groups of statements
-hard to fake
-all new clients take this test when they first com in
a given person's sensitivity to an environmental event is influenced by genes
Ex the likelihood of developing depression if: no maltreatment; possible maltreatment; severe maltreatment.
2 short alleles have the highest likelihood, then one long one short, and 2 longs aren't affected by maltreatment
Views of science Static
static- science is the systematic accumulation of knowledge
dynamic- science is the activity of hypothesis generation and testing
may be involoved in depression, mania, & schizophrenia
precursor of norepinephrine
may be involved in depression, maia, and schizophrenia
communicates with the sympathetic nercous system, where it is involved in producing states of high arousal and thus may be involved int he anxiety disorders and other stress-related conditions
gamma-amiobutyric acid (GABA)
inhibits nerve impulses throughout most areas of the brain and may be involved in the anxiety disorders
different forms of the same gene
different genes contributing to a disorder
the process by which genes are turned on and off
agonist vs. antagonist
methods used to study how nuerotransmitters are working in the brain. a drug that stimulates a particular neurotransmitter's receptors is an agonist.
an antagonist is a drug that works on a neurotransmitter's receptors to dampen the activity of that neurotransmitter.
in the tip of the tempral lobe
important area for attention to emotionally salient stimuli and memory of emotionally relevant events.
key brain structures for psychopathology researchers given the amount of emotional problems in the psychological disorders
methods of knowing (Charles Peirce)
tenacity- it's true because I know it's true
authority- it's true because the Bible tells me so
a priori- it's true because it stands to reason
scientific- it's "true" if repeated empirical observation does not refute it
regulates metabolism. temp, BP, sleeping and appetite