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What is the primary role of nursing in the maternity family?
Maternity nursing focuses on the care of childbearing women and their families through all stages of pregnancy and child birth as well as the first four weeks after birth. Goal is to improve the health, well-being of women, infants, children, and families.
What is nuclear family?
Husband, wife and maybe one or more child
What is extended family?
Relatives in addition to nuclear family
What is blended family?
parents bring unrelated children from prior or foster parenting relationships into new, joint family situations
What is alternative patterns of relationships?
Multi-adult households, skip generations families, communal groups with kids, cohabiting partners, and homosexual couples
What are the changing economic status that is influencing family forms?
makeing ends meet is still a concern for families
How is homelessness influencing family forms?
people without physical shelter. Families with children are the fastest growing section of homelessness population
What are the external female reproductive structures?
Vulva (labia minora), vestibular glands, mon pubis, clitoris, labia majora, vaginal vestibule, vaginal orifice, and urethral opening
What are the internal female reproductive structures?
Vagina, uterus, uterine tubes and ovaries
What are methods of assessing fetal well-being?
Fetal movement counts, fetal heart rate via doppler, lab tests, ultrasound, fetal nuchal translucency, amnio, chorionic villus sampling
Normal growth and development of unborn child at 4 weeks?
body flexed, c-shaped, arm and leg buds present, heat at right angles to body, stomach at midline and fusiform, conspicous liver, esophagus short, intestine a short tube, heart develops double chambers visible, major veings completed, primary lung buds appear, eye and ear appearing as optic vessel and otocyst, genital ridge appears in week 5, ureteral buds appear
What is normal fetal development at 8 weeks?
Body fairly well formed, nose flat, eyes far apart, digits well formed, head elevating, tail almost disappeared, eyes, ears, nose and mouth recognizable. Small intestines coil within umbiliical cord, liver very large, fetus capable of some movement, main blood vessels assume final plan, pleural and pericardial cavitites forming, nostrils closed, cerebral cortex begins to acquire typical cells, testes and ovaries distinguishable
What is normal development of developing fetus at 12 weeks?
Nails appearing, resembles a human, erect but large, skin pink, bile secreted, palatal fusion complete, some bones well outlined, ossification spreading, blood forming in marrow, lungs acquire definite shape, kidney able to secrete urine, brain structural configuration almost complete, earliest taste buds indicated, sex recognizable
What is normal fetal development for 16 weeks?
Head still dominant, face looks human, eyes, ears and nose approach typical appearance, scalp hair appears, meconium in bowel, , some enzyme secretions, anus open, bones almost distincly indicated, heart muscle well developed, elastic fibers appear in lungs, terminal and respiratory bronchioles appear, elastic fibers appear in lungs, kidney in position, cerebral lobes delineated, general sense organs differentiated, testes in position for descent into scrotum, vagina open
What is normal fetal development for 20 weeks?
Vernix caseosa appears, lanugo appear, legs lengthen considerable, sebaceous glands appear, enamel and dentine depositing, sternum ossifies, fetal movements strong enough for mother to feel, nostrils reopen, brain grossly formed, nose and ears ossify
What is normal fetal development for 24 weeks?
Body lean but fairly well proportioned, skin red and wrinkled, vernix caseosa present, sweat glands forming, blood formation increase in bone marrow and decreases in liver, alveolar ducts and sacs present in amniotic fluid, cerebral cortex layered typically, can hear
What is normal fetal development for 28 weeks?
Lean body, less wrinkled and red, nails appear, astragalus ossified, weak fleeting movements, minimum tone, lecithin forming on alveolar surfaces, appearance of cerebral fissures, indefinite sleep -wake cycle, eyelids reopen, retinal layers completed, light receptive
What is normal fetal development for 30-31 weeks?
subcutaneous fat beginning to collect, more rounded appears skin pink and smooth, assumed birth position, middle fourth phalanxes ossify, permanent teeth primordia seen, sense of taste present, aware of sounds outside of mother's body
What is normal fetal development for 36 weeks?
skin pink, body rounded, distal femoral ossification, centers present, fair tone, can turn and elevate head, formation of new nephrons ceases, end of spinal cord at level of third lumbar vertebra
What is normal fetal development for 40 weeks?
Skin smooth and pink, lanugo on shoulders and upper body only, active sustained movement, good tone, may lift head, pulmonary branching only 2/3 complete, myelination of brain begins, patterned sleep-wake cycle with alert periods, cries when hungry or uncomfortable, testes in scrotum, labia majora well developed
What are the components of the history and physical assessment to be done throughout pregnancy?
Vital signs, height, weight, pelvic exam, heart and lung sounds, extremities, skin assessment for edema, redness, pigmentation changes
Describe a sonogram aka ultrasound?
conducted abdominally and transvaginally. It provides critical info to health care providers regarding fetal activity and gestational age, normal versus abnormal fetal growth curves, visual assistance with which invasive tests may be performed more safely, fetal and placental anatomy, and fetal well-being
What is the alpha-fetoprotein test?
Test used to screen for neural tube defects. Test is 80-85% accurate in detecting open abdominal wall and NTDs early in pregnancy. This screening is recommended for all pregnant women. Test done between 15-22 weeks
What is the chorionic villi sample test?
Used for genetic studies. Procedures is performed between 10-12 weeks of gestation and involves the removal of a small tissue specimen from the fetal portion of the placenta. Because chorionic villi originate in the zygote, that tissue reflects the genetic makeup of the fetus
What is the oxytocin stress test?
An IV infusion begun with a scalp needle. Oxytocin is infused to the mother until 3 contractions of good quality are observed within a 10 minute period. Monitoring occurs electronically with a fetal ultrasound transducer and contraction tocodynamometer
What is the non-stress test during pregnancy?
Simple non-invasive test where an external monitor is placed on the mother. The fetal heart rate is recorded, performed in pregnancies over 28 weeks gestation. No stress is placed on fetus. Goal is to measure the heart rate of the fetus in response to its own movements
What is an amniocentesis?
Study of fetal cells in amniotic fluid that yields much info about the fetus. A prenatal test in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is removed from the sac surrounding the fetus is tested
What does the first trimester cover?
What does the 2nd trimester cover
What does the 3rd trimester cover?
Covers over 27 weeks until gestation (38-40 weeks)
What is prenatal care?
Define health status of mother and fetus. Determine gestational age of fetus and monitor development. Identify woman at risk for complications. Provide education and counseling
What is safe-sex?
Prevent acqusition of HIV, also decrease transmission of sexually transmitted infections, which can develop into PID with resultant infertility or sterility and affect future childbearing capacity
What is infertility?
Unable to conceive childe after at least 1 year of trying. Has to see a specialist
What is the menstral cycle?
Physiological changes from beginning of one menstral period to the beginning of the next. Lining of the uterus sheds monthly
What is menarche?
A girls first menstrual period in her life. She can now get pregnant
What is the Sexual Response Cycle?
- Divided into four phases:
- Excitement phase, plateau phase, orgasmic phase, and resolution phase. Phases occur progressively, with no sharp dividing line between any two phases. Specific body changes take place in sequence
What is menopause?
The natual cessation of menstration, regression of ovarian function occurs
List some birth control methods and effectiveness
- Combination pills-may reduce acne, pain during ovulation and premenstrual symptoms. both types of pills reduce heavy bleeding and cramping.
- Patches or vaginal rings are similar to combo pills, but they don't require taking a daily pill. The patch is changed weekly, the ring is changed monthly. (with 1 week off after 3 weeks use)
- Depo-Provera-progestin only. Shot every 3 months
- Implanon-progestin only hormone implant. Prevent pregnancy for about 3 years. Inserted and removed by a trained health professional
When a pregnant women lies on her back, the baby's weight can cause pressure on what?
Inferior Vena Cava
What percentage of moms gave birth in hospitals in 2008?
A first time
mother-to-be, now in her second trimester of pregnancy, calls the office regularly with questions and
concerns. Today’s call is in regards to
“pressure around her belly” and “whether that is normal”. You:
Advise her to come in-it could be a sign of preterm labor
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