Bio; Chemstry of life

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Author:
efrain12
ID:
133163
Filename:
Bio; Chemstry of life
Updated:
2012-02-06 00:41:16
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BIo
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lecture notes
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  1. atomic number
    # of protons
  2. Mass number
    protons + Neutrons
  3. Number of electrons
    same number as protons
  4. How many electrons can every shell hold?
    shell 1: 2

    shell 2: 8

    shell 3: 8
  5. Chemical Reactions- Synthesis reaction (A+ B > AB)
    -atoms or molecules combine

    -energy is absorbed for bond formation
  6. Chemical Reactions- Decomposition reaction (AB> A + B)
    -molecule is broken down

    -chemical energy is released
  7. Covalent bonding
    -sharing pair of valence electrons

    - # of electrons required to complete an atom's valence shell determines how many bonds will form
  8. Electron negativity
    -attraction for electrons
  9. Nonpolar covalent
    -electrons shared equally

    ex) diatomic H and O
  10. Polar covalent
    -one atom more electronegative than the other (charged)

    ex) Water
  11. Ionic Bonding
    -high electronegativity difference strips valence electrons away from another atom
  12. Cation
    positive ion
  13. Anion
    negative ion
  14. Metabolism
    the totality of an organisms chemical processes; managing the material and energy resources of the cell
  15. Catabolic pathways
    breakdown of complex molecules to simpler compounds

    ex) degradative process such as cellular respiration releases energy
  16. Anabolic pathways
    build complicated molecules from simpler ones

    ex) protein synthesis, photosynthesis. Consumes energy
  17. Hydrogen bonds
    hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom (oxygen or nitrogen)
  18. Heat of vaporization
    quantity of heat required to convert 1g from liquid to gas state

    • *moderates earths temp
    • *mammals can sweat
  19. Specific heat
    amount of heat absorbed or lost to change temperature by 1 C, water stabilizes temperature

    • * can absorb a lot of heat before it boils
    • *protect us from rapid temp changes
  20. Adhesion
    H+ bonds holding molecules to another substance
  21. Cohesion
    H+ bonds holding molecules together
  22. Acid
    increases the hydrogen concentration of a solution
  23. Base
    reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
  24. pH
    power of hydrogen
  25. Metals
    are elements that have a tendency to lose electrons and form cations. Normally do not accept electrons
  26. Non-metals
    have a tendecy to gain or share electrons with other atoms. They are electronegative in character.

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