Anatomy Chapter 3

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Anatomy Chapter 3
2012-02-06 03:45:38

Anatomy Lecture - Chapter 3
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  1. Tissue: 4 types
    1. Epithelial

    2. Connective

    3. Muscle

    4. Neural
  2. Characteristics
    -Cellularity - cells are immediately adjacent from each other / Little or no little extra cellular fluid

    -Avascular - no blood cells pass cell

    • -Attachment - connected to underlying tissue / generally connected tissue
    • *There is a connection point called the basement membrane *Theres the lamina lucida on the epithelial side
    • * Theres the lamina densa is the deeper layer (Connected)
    • *Together they are called the Basal Lamina

    -Polarity - How the organelles are situated in the cytoplasm of the cell located toward the Basal Surface of the cell

    • *The exposed surface is called the Apical Surface Epithelial = Coverings & Linings
    • -Lumen is the lining inside a tube of a epithelial cell
    • Regenerative Has a high Mitotic rate
  3. Functions



    *Just to be slippery
  4. Specializations
    *The ability to secrete (Glands)

    *Movement along the epithelial surface
  5. Simple Epithelial
    1 layer of cells
  6. Stratified Epithelial
    2+ more of layers
  7. Shape of cells
    *Squamous (Flattened)

    *Cuboidal (Cube Shape)

    *Columnar (like columns) Nucleus is much more basal (lower to the cell)
  8. More on Epithelial Cells...
    *Facilitate Absorption

    *Simple Squamous - is found in the Alveoli of the lungs

    *Capillary beds are only one blood cell thick, on the outside of the alveoli

    *Serous Membrance - Find it covering organs. Lining of the Heart, lining of the blood vessels
  9. 2 Types of Strantonized Squamous
    Keratinized - Keratin Provides water proofing (SKIN) -

    Non Keratinized - Protective but in Moist environments (Oral Cavity, Esophagus, rectum, Anus, Vagina) (Doesn't provided its own water proofing)
  10. Simple Cuboidal
    is found in places with a lot of secretion and absorption *

  11. Stratified Cuboidal
  12. Transitional Epithelium-
    Transitional - you find this in the Urinary Bladder, Uterus, Uretha

    *when the bladder is relaxed it is more cuboidal when full its more flattened
  13. Simple Coulumnar
    *They have microvilli - They can absorb more

    *Like the Digestive Tractin the Stomach and Small/Large Intestine

    -Goblet Cells -Specialized Glandual Cell - Release digestive enzyme cells in the digestive tract.

    ***Create Mucus
  14. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
    **It appears to be stratified but IT IS NOT

    **Cilia they act more like fingers and push things along/Works with Goblet Cells
  15. Glandular tissue
    - Produces Secretions

    **Exocrine - secrete products onto the surface

    **Endocrine - produce products that go into the blood stream (Hormones)
  16. ***Unicellular --Goblet Cells
  17. *Multicellular -
    *By the types of Secretions

    • -Serous - Watery, Enzymes
    • -Mucous - secreting a substance called mucin, Add water get Mucus!
    • -Mixed =Serous and Mucous

    -Method of Secretion

    • -Merocrine - most Common released by exocytosis
    • -Apocrine - part of cell lost of product
    • -Holocrine - The whole cell is lost with release of products
  18. 2. Connective Tissue

    1.Specific compliment of cells

    2.Ground Substance *extracellular = Fluid outside of the cell *Watery =Connective Tissue *Semi Fluid =Connective Tissue Proper *Gel-Like =Cartilage *Hard =In Bone

    • 3. Fibers (Protein) **Extracellular Matrix is a combo of Fibers & Ground Substances
    • A. Collagen - Most common , Long, straight, unbranched/high tensile strength
    • B. Elastic - Are thinner, wavy appearnce, and can be branched (stretchy)(150X its normal length)
    • C. Reticular - Are very thin and highly branched and interwoven , create a stroma (Net like structure)
  19. Functions of Connective Tissue
    1. Support - Structural Framework

    2. Energy Storage

    3. Packing and Filling

    4. Protective - provides cushioning and shock absorption
  20. Connective Tissue Proper
    Refers to Tissues with extracellular matrix's (Syrupy Ground Substance); relatively few cells
  21. *CELLS (Connective Tissue Proper)
    • 1. Fixed
    • a. Fibroblast - Immature form of the cell, can become different types, Most common, Secrete Fibers, Maintenance i. Fixed Macrophage - Stimulate a Immune Response ii.Melanocytes - producing Melanin (pigment) *Sidenote: Albinism - have melanocytes but don't produce pigment iii. Adipocytes - Store extra Lipids
    • iv. Mesenchymal - Stem Cells

    • b. Wandering - Mature form of the cell
    • i. Free Macrophage
    • ii. Free microphages
    • iii. Lympocytes - White Blood Cells / Can change into Plasma Cells and produce Anti-Bodies
    • iv. Mast Cell - histamines (inflammatory response) engulf the dead cells and bacteria coming from the open wound and heparin

    • *Inflammatory Response - Injury - Mast Cell release Histamines onto the Capillaries - become leaky - fluid building, Heat,
    • Red - Fixed macrophages cause aggregations micro and macro engulf the dead cells
  22. Loose Connective Tissue
    • 1. Areolar, least specialized, all cell types and Fibers are present
    • 2. Adipose Tissue - mostly adipocytes
    • *Energy Storage
    • *Cushioning
    • *Space Filler
    • *Insulating Tissue
    • 3. Reticular Tissue - reticular fibers, fibrablasts, macrophages *Find in the Liver Spleen, Bone Marrow, Lymph-nodes
    • A. Loose - few cells ground substances
    • B. Dense-Lots of Fibers and few cells
    • i.. Dense Regular - Fibers parallel (primarily Collagen) Find in Tendons, Ligaments, Aponeuroses (Sheet Form), Elastic Tissue
    • ii.Dense Irregular - Fibers are Multi-directional
  23. Supporting Connective Tissue

    • 1. Cartilage - (is Avascular) Rubbery Matrix - In the Matrix of types of cells there are Chrondrocyte
    • *are in the lacunae*, Protein Fibers ChondroitinSulphates (polysaccharides)
    • *Perichondrium - outermost layer is dense irregular and the inner most layer where you have the Mesenchymal (Stem Cells)
    • *Appositional - happens in the Perichondrium *Interstitial - Happens in the Chondrocytes
  24. Supporting Connective Tissue

    *3 Types of Cartilage
    1.Hyaline - most common, the weakest, least amount of fibers, found in the ribs (Coastal Cartilage) Blue rings in the Resp. Tract

    2. Elastic - more elastic fibers than collagen, Auricle of the Ear, Epligottis

    3. Fiber - very resistant to compression, Intervert Disc and Pubic synthesis, Knee Joint
  25. Supporting Connective Tissue

    2. Bone - Hard Matrix = 1/3 Collagen Fibers and 2/3 Calcium Salts

    A. Compact Bone - is found on the outer surface of the bone

    • B. Osteocytes - are in Lacunae also
    • i. Lamellae - Bone is formed in Concentric Rings inside a (Osteon)
    • ii. COnnection points called Canaliculi - movement of material among osteocytes and from vessels in the central Canal (Vessel and Nerve Supply)
    • iii. Periosteum has two layers Outer*Dense irregular and the inner is mesenchymal cells
  26. Supporting Connective Tissue

    Fluid Connective Tissue
    Fluid Connective Tissue

    • 1. Blood -
    • a. plasma - the fluid portion is 92% water
    • b. Proteins are floating around
    • c.The Form Elements : Red Blood Cells/White Blood Cells-Carry out the immune response/Platelets - Help to form blood clots

    2. Lymph - Fluid coming from outside of the cell, the Interstitial fluid enters through the lymph vessels / Immune response
  27. 3. Muscule Tissue
    • (3 types)
    • 1. Skeletal - Primarily attached to bone, Unbranched, long, thin "Muscle Fibers"
    • a. Multi Nucleated
    • b. Striations - actin and myosin bands
    • c. Voluntary
    • d. limited ability to repair itself

    • 2. Cardiac - Found in the Heart only (Myocardium)
    • a. Branched, relatively short, single nucleus, can see Striations
    • b. Intercalated discs (gap junctions)
    • c. No repair ability
    • d. Involuntary - re: control of your heart rate (pacemaker)

    • 3. Smooth - is Spindle Shape, Single Nucleus, They are not striated, involuntary, like in the blood vessels, abdominal organs
    • a. Can repair itself.
  28. 4. Neural
    • a. Neuron
    • b. Dendrite - incoming signal
    • c. Nucleus
    • d. Axon - outgoing signal