Music Appreciation E2

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Music Appreciation E2
2012-02-06 11:49:02
Music Appreciation E2

Music Appreciation E2
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  1. When were most of Europe's cathedrals built?
  2. What were the three social classes of the Middle Ages?
    nobility, peasantry, and clergy
  3. What 3 things caused heartbreak and confusion in the late 14th century Europeans.
    Hundred Years' War, the black death—or bubonic plague (around 1350), and a weakening of the feudal system and the Catholic church.
  4. Define Renaissance
    “Rebirth,” or renaissance, of human creativity; it was a period of exploration and adventure.
  5. What became the favorite subject matter of the humanists of the 15th century?
    human life and its accomplishments
  6. How long did it take to print the 20 million books available by 1500?
    50 years
  7. What was the center of medieval musical life?
    The cathedral
  8. T/F Most medieval music was vocal.
  9. List 4 characteristics of Gregorian chant.
    sung without accompaniment, set to sacred Latin texts, monophonic in texture, and Its rhythm is flexible, without meter, and has little sense of beat.
  10. Translate "alleluia."
    Praise ye the Lord
  11. What plays the drone in "O successores"?
    a fiddle
  12. Who were the troubadours? Why do we still know their songs?
    Among the best-known of these poet-musicians were the troubadour Guillaume IX, duke of Aquitaine, from southern France; and the trouvère Chastelain de Couci, from northern France. Many of their love songs have been preserved because nobles had clerics write them down.
  13. Describe Hildegard of Bingen.
    Hildegard was one of the most creative and many-sided personalities of the Middle Ages. A visionary and mystic, she was active in religious and diplomatic affairs. She also wrote poetry and music; treatises on theology, science, and medicine; and a musical drama, Ordo virtutum (Play of the Virtues), which is the earliest known morality play. She was the first woman composer from whom a large number of works—monophonic sacred songs—have survived.
  14. What practice of some 10th century monks eventually transformed western music?
    adding a second melodic line to Gregorian chant
  15. Why did chant melodies continue to be used in polyphonic music even after the 12th century?
    the chant represented the authority of the church
  16. Who were the earliest known composers of the Notre Dame school?
    Leonin and Perotin
  17. Why did composers of medieval polyphony choose to make music that we consider thin and hollow?
    it has relatively few triads
  18. What two changes occurred in 14th century music?
    Now beats could be subdivided into two as well as three. Syncopation—rarely used earlier—became an important rhythmic practice.
  19. What 14th century cleric composed more love songs than masses?
    Guillaume de Machaut
  20. List the five sections of the "mass ordinary":
    the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei
  21. What kind of man is the Renaissance ideal?
    An educated person who is trained in music
  22. What are some indicators in our text of the increasing status of musicians in society during the Renaissance?
    “every educated person was expected to be trained in music.” “Shakespeare's stage directions call for music more than 300 times, and his plays are full of beautiful tributes to music.” “Church choirs grew in size.” “Kings, princes, and dukes competed for the finest composers.” “In general, musicians enjoyed higher status and pay than ever before.”
  23. What countries became important musical centers during the Renaissance?
    Italy, Germany, England, and Spain
  24. T/F Instrumental music became more important than vocal in the Renaissance.
  25. What is word painting?
    musical representation of specific poetic images
  26. When composers began to use a bass line, they grew more interested in _________________.
  27. T/F Instrumental accompaniment parts are usually specified in Renaissance choral music.
  28. What is the difference between a mass and a motet?
    A mass is written to five sections: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei. Motets are written to any latin texts other than those written in a mass.
  29. Whose music did Martin Luther characterize as "cheerful, gentle, mild, and the song of a finch"?
    Josquin Desprez
  30. How did the Council of Trent affect Palestrina's music?
    The restraint and serenity of Palestrina's works reflect their emphasis on a more spiritual music.
  31. Who was expected to participate in musical entertainment at Elizabethan social gatherings?
    Every educated person
  32. Define madrigal.
    a piece for several solo voices set to a short poem
  33. Who was "Oriana"?
    Queen Elizabeth
  34. A plucked string instrument with a body shaped like a pear is a ____________.
  35. Name two Renaissance dances:
    pavane, or passamezzo, in duple meter, and the lively galliard, in triple meter.
  36. List at least 6 Renaissance instruments:
    the trumpet, the shawm, the lute, the recorder, cornets, and sackbuts
  37. What is Terpsichore?
    Terpsichore was the Greek muse, or goddess, of the dance.
  38. What is the distinguishing feature between the two dances of this pair.
    The passamezzo is a stately dance in duple meter and the galliard is a quick dance in triple meter.