Card Set Information
Carbohydrates is a main source for what?
the human body
Carbohydrates provides the body with what?
Adenosine Triphosphate is what?
the universal energy source for biological reactions
What is the primary source of energy for the synthesis of ATP?
Glucose oxidation by the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid pathways
What type of molecules bond carbon, hydrogen & oxygen together?
Carbohydrates is made of how many carbon and molecules?
6 carbon atoms, 6 elements of water molecules
What is the chemical formula for carbohydrates?
Cabohydrates contain what two groups?
C=O (carbonyl) and -OH (hydroxyl)
Classifications of Carbohydrates are based on what 4 properties?
-size of the base carbon chain
-location of the C=O
-stereochemistry of the compound
-number of sugar units
The size of the base carbon chain shows what?
the number of carbons in the molecule
e.g. Triose-3carbons ; TTetrose-4 ; Pentose-5; Hexose-6 ex. fructose, galactose, glucose
The location of the C=O function group have what two forms of carbohydrates?
as its functional group
as its functional group
Stereochemistry is the study of what?
the spatial arrangements of molecules
Stereoisomers are compounds that have the same order and types of bonds, but different in what?
spatial arrangements and different properties
What is more representative of the actual structure?
Fisher Projection is represented as what?
as a straight chain or cyclis, hemacytometer form
Stereoisomers central carbons are what?
How many groups are attached to the carbon atoms in a stereoisomers?
4 different groups
True or False: stereoisomers mirror images and can overlap
Optical activity has the ability to rotate what?
plane polarized light
For dextrorotatory, name 3 characteristics of it?
-rotate to right
-use + symbol
-usually D isomers
For levorotatory, name 3 characteristics?
*rotate to the left
*use - symbol
*usually L isomers
What are the 4 classification of number sugar units? 4 types of Carbohydrates
Chaining of sugars relies on what type of formation?
glycoside bonds that are bridges of oxygen atoms
When 2 carbohydrate molecules join together what is produced?
What happens when 2 cabohydrates split?
one molecule of water is used to form individual compounds called
What is glycoside linkage?
a bond between monosaccharides
What are 3 characteristics of Monosaccharides?
-contain 3-6 carbons
-sweet in taste
: glucose, fructose, galactose
___ is the only carbohydrates that can be absorbed into the bloodstream through the intestinal lining.
What is the primary form of sugar stored in the human body for energy?
Glucose "blood sugar"
Galactose sugar is found where?
milk and yogurt
Fructose is found where?
Glucose, galactose, and fructose share what?
same molecular formula
Which carb has 2-10 monosaccharides?
Oligosaccharides have the most __ sugars?
Disaccharides formed on what?
the interaction of goups between 2 monosaccharides w/ the production of water molecule
What are some common disaccharides?
sucrose, lactose, maltose
What is the formula for sucrose?
common table sugar=glucose + fructose
What is the formula for lactose?
major sugar in milk=glucose + galactose
What is the formula for maltose?
product of starch digestion=glucose + glucose
Disaccharides easily converted to their monosaccharide bases by what?
enzymes in the digestive tract
Table sugar is most common sugar in what?
Sugar cane and beet are up to how many % by mass sucrose?
What is an enzyme that requires to hydrolyze lactose?
What is lack of insufficient amount of the enzyme?
What happens if lactose enters lower GI?
it can cause gas and cramps
Maltose is a product of what?
Where would you find maltose?
-ingredient in infant formulas
-production of beer
-flavoring-fresh baked aroma
Polysaccharides have long chains of more than 10 monosaccharides that equal to what?
polymers of the simple sugars
Where are complex carbohydrates present in?
In most grain products, vegetables and potatoes
At what rate is polysaccharides digested at?
What are two most common examples of polysaccharides?
starch and glycogen
What is a polymer of glucose?
Starch is used by plants to store glucose for what?
later use as energy
What are some common sources of starch?
rice, beans, wheat, corn, potatoes, ect
What happens to starch when eaten?
an enzyme that occurs in saliva and in the intestines break the bonds between the repeating glucose
What is another polymer of glucose?
Glycogen is used by animals to?
Excess glucose is bonded together to form what?
glycogen molecules, which is stored in the liver and muscles tissues as an "instant" source of energy
Glycogen stores excess of this?
Reducing substances do what?
oxidize or reduce substances
This substances has loss of electrons
This substance gains electrons
Reducing substances must contain what groups?
aldehyde or ketone group
This is the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell
What is anabolism?
synthesis of all compounds needed by the cells
What is catabolism?
breakdown of all molecules to obtain energy
What is an enzyme?
is a protein molecule that functions as an organic catalyst to speed a chemical reaction w/out itself being affected by the reaction
amylase, lactase, lipase are examples of what protein molecule?
In this process most of ingested carbohydrates are polymers such as starch and glycogen?
Digestive process is digestive by what?
salivary amylase and pancreatic amylase=disaccharides
Digestive process is further hydrolysed by what?
maltase, an enzyme released by intestinal mucosa
2 important gut-derived enzymes that hydrolyze what?
sucrase and lactase
Monosaccharides are absorbed by what?
this is transported to the liver by hepatic portal venous blood supply.
this is the only carbohydates to be directly used for energy or stored as glycogen
What must be converted to glucose before use?
fructose and galactose
This is facilitated transport of glucose across the plasma membrane
initial event in glucose metabolism
What happens to glucose once its in circulation?
glucose is taken to the various cells of the body
What happens to glucose within the cells?
is rapidly converted to glucose-6-phosphate, a major intermediate in glucose metabolism
G6P serves as what?
starting point for 4 metabolic pathways
during this process,the cell obtains the high-energy molecule ____
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
this is energy currency of the cell, mostly gained in mitochondria, and composed of adenosine, ribosome and 3 phosphate groups
ATP needs what?
all basic cell functions and the whole body in general
ATP is required to convert glucose to_________ by tissue specific isoenzyme known as _____
glucose 6- phosphate catalyzed, hexokinase
this is a metabolism of glucose to either pyruvate or lactate for production of energy
Whats is the dominant product of aerobic?
This is when oxygen is depleted and lactate is the dominant product
This is glycolytic pathway (Embden-Meyerhof)
Prepatory, Krebs cycle, and Citric Acid cycle is also known as?
Aerobic Glycolysis is what type of chain?
this converts glucose-6-phosphate to two molecules of a three-carbon compound
What is produced in the Tricarboxylic Acid cycle?
NADH, and H
This is a biological pathway that breaks down Acetyl CoA, producing CO
H+, NADH, FADH2, and ATP
This is a waste product that diffuses out of the cells and is given off by the organism.
This accounts for 2 immediate ATP molecules per glucose molecule
Tricarboxylic acid cycle
In Tricarboxylic both __ and __ will enter the Electron Transport Chain
NADH and FADH2
This occurs in the mitochondria
Electron Transport Chain
Electron Transport Chain is the formation of CO
O as waste product of what?
Electrons move down the chain, carrier are reduced and the ____
Energy is captured and used to form what?
In the END product each glucose molecule yields a net of __-__ ATP molecules(__ from glycolysis, 2 from _____, and 32 or 34 from the electron transport chain, depending on certain conditions.
this is important for tissues such as muscle, which often have important energy requirement w/out an adequate oxygen supply
In the absence of oxygen what is pyruvic acid converted to?
Side effects of anaerobic glycolysis are what?
muscles fatigue, pain, cramps, and soreness
This is the most diffused into the bloodstream, then to the liver, where it is converted back to pyruvic acid when oxygen become available
this is a detour of glucose 6 phosphate from the glycolysis pathway to become 6-phosphogluconic acid
Hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP)
this leads to the formation of ribosome-5-phosphate and NADPH
this produces NADPH for the synthesis of fatty acids and steroids for tissues such as mammary glands, adipose tissue, adrenal cortex and the liver
Hexose Monophosphate Shunt
this is very important to RBC's which lack mitochondria
NADPH in RBCs help protect what?
the RBC cell membrane and RBC enzymes from the damaging effects of oxidants and free radicals
The HMP also allows the pentose to enter what?
In this metabolic process conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage is what?
Glycogenolysis is the breakkdown of what for use as energy?
glycogen to glucose
This process is glycogen broken back down into glucose when energy is needed
Glycogenesis is mediated by what?
enzyme glycogen phosphorylase (phosphate group not water break down the linkage)
What are the major depots of glycogen?
liver and skeletal muscle
Insulin is synthesized by what cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas?
___is the primary homone responsible for increasing glucose levels and synthesized by the ____ of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas?
This hormone is released during time of stress and increase plasma glucose by inhibiting insulin secretion?
Released from the adrenal cortex on stimulation by ACTH?
Cortisol or glucorticoid
This hormone is produced by the Delta cells of the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas?
What are the laboratory findings for the hyperglycemia ?
-increased glucose in plasma and urine
-ketones in plasma and urine
-decreased blood and urine PH
A group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in___ secretion, action or both?
What are the characteristics of DM Type 1?
-10-20% of Diabetes
-children & adolescences
What are the characteristics of Type 2 DM?
-most common type of diabetes
-decrease cell or response
-ketoacidosis is rare
What are some characteristics of Gestational DM?
-seen in woman over 25
-metabolic & hormonal changes
-glucose returns to normal after birth
What are the 3 criteria's for Diabetes Mellitus?
According to ADA,__ of the above criteria must be confirmed on different days.
What are normal values for fasting glucose? 2HR OGTT?
What are the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia?
-nervousness and shaking
__primary source of energy for brain, erythrocytes, and retinal cells.
______,_____,_____ are the basic elements of carbohydrates.
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
conversion of glucose to glycogen
breakdown of glucogen to glucose
synthesis of proteins to glucose
water breaks down sugars
what do hydrolysis of the following diasaccharides yield? sucrose, lactose, maltose
____is also known as complex carbohydrates
___ means stored glucose.
Insulin is produced by the ___ cells of the ___ in the ___.
beta, Islets, Langerhans
____ produced by the adrenal medulla, during time of stress, increase plasma glucose levels by inhibiting insulin secretion.
What are the lab findings for hyperglycemia?
electrolyte imbalance, increase glucose, increase SG,increase ketones, increase osmolality, decrease PH
When do you perform OGTT on a pregnant woman?
When levels of GTT were abnormally high if glucose was
What is the main characteristics of G6PD Type 1?
What is the most common enzyme defiency for galactosemia?
galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase
What is the specimen requirement for glycosylated hemoglobin testing?
EDTA whole blood
fats in body, water insoluble
___ lipids charaterized by having 2-4 double bonds between carbons.
___ allow for compact energy storage within the body
____ lipid consisting of a 4-ring structure and side chain of 8 carbon atoms
____ lipids formed by the conjugation of 2 fatty acids and a phosphorylated glycerol
____ are proteins used to transport lipids though the bloodstream
___enzyme from the pancreas acts on tryglycerides removing one fatty acid chain at a time