Psych Exam #1

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  1. _____ are used to make unobservabl abstract concepts, such as "friendliness" or "racism", specific and measurable.

    A. Operational Definitions
    B. Correlations
    C. Data
    D. Constructs
    A. Operational Definitions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which of the following is a biological psychologist least likely to investigate?

    A. effects of unconsious thoughts on behavior
    B. effects of brain damage on behavior
    C. effects of genetics on behavior
    D. effects of drugs on behavior
    A. effects of brain damage on behavior
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. As described in class, the research cycle involves three basic steps. Which of the following is not one of them?

    A. data collection
    B. hypothesis
    C. proof
    D. theory
    C. proof
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which early "school" of psychology encountered difficulties due to its use of the introspection of trained observers as an important source of data?

    A. Gestalt Psychology
    B. Cognitive Psychology
    C. Structuralism
    D. Behaviorism
    C. Structuralism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which type of research can only be conducted in a laboratory?

    A. experimental studies
    B. correlational studies
    C. descriptive studies
    D. none of the above
    D. none of the above
  6. Researchers favoring the perspective known as Behaviorism frequently used non-human animals as subjects de in part to their belief that ____.

    A. humans have minds and other species do not
    B. it is impossible to get accurate data from humans
    C. research on humans was unethical
    D. behavioral laws are essentially the same across different species
    D. behavioral laws are essentially the same across different species
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The main difference btween a correlational study and an experiment is that _____.

    A. in an experiment (but not in a correlational study) the researchis conducted in a laboratory
    B. in an experiment (but not in a correlational study) the investigator manipulates an independent variable
    C. in a correlational study (but not in an experiment) the researcher begins with a hypothesis
    D. in a correlational study (but not in an experiment) the researcher collects self- report data
    B. in an experiment (but not in a correlational study) the investigator manipulates an independent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. As discussed in the text book, individuals who graduate with a bachelor's degree in psychology _____.

    A. usually work as psychotherapists under a psychiatrist's supervision
    B. can set up an independent practice to provide psychotherapy
    C. have an unemployent rate similar to those who never attended college
    D. usually take jobs that are not closely related to psychology
    D. usually take jobs that are not closely related to psychology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Suppose that over a sample of days and individuals we measured the outside temperature and the number of pounds of clothing worn while outside. Suppose also that we used our data to calculate a correlation coefficient. If we found that as the outside temperature decreased, people wore more pounds of clothing, our correlation coefficient would be ________.

    A. positive
    B. negative
    C. impossible to calculate for this type of data
    D. zero
    B. negative
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which of the following porcedures would be most likely to reduce the effects of demand characteristics?

    A. Discard data from any subject who did not complete the study
    B. conceal the purpose of the research from the participants
    C. randomly assign participants to different treatment conditions
    D. Evaluate the statistical significance of the results.
    B. conceal the purpose of the research from the participants
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. If you ran a large corporation and you wanted a psychologist to help ensure that you hired people who were well-suited for the jobs you have, you would be best advised by ______ psychologist.

    A. a cognitive
    B. a forensic
    C. a develpomental
    D. an industrial/ organizational
    D. an industrial/ organizational
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. If every individual in a popoulation had an equal chance of being selected for a sample, the sample is said to be ______.

    A. a random sample
    B. a convenience sample
    C. a representative sample
    D. a biased sample
    A. a random sample
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. A dependent variable is a variable that _______.

    A. the researcher manipulates
    B. the participants themselves measure
    C. the researcher measures
    D. is held constant by the researcher and not permitted to vary
    C. the researcher measures
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. As mentioned in the text book, a recent trend in psychology has been an increasing agreement that _____.

    A. scientific methods cannot shed light on how the mind works
    B. many psychological processes need to be studied in a wider variety of cultures
    C. research concerning the brain is not relevant to psychology
    D. research on American college students is the best strategy for learnin about human behavior in general
    B. many psychological processes need to be studied in a wider variety of cultures
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The mind-body problem (or mind-brain problem) refers to which of the following questions?

    A. Which is more important in controlling behavior, the mind or the brain?
    B. How is the mind related to the brain and does one control the other?
    C. What causes the mind to undergo "out-of-body" experiences?
    D. Which part of the mind controls the body?
    B. How is the mind related to the brain and does one control the other?
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. The tendency for researchers see waht they expected to see rather than accurately observing what is really happening, is called _____.

    A. extrasensory perception
    B. the Garcia effect
    C. the Clever Hans effect
    D. experimenter bias
    D. experimenter bias
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Ryan cannot remember anything that happened today during his 8am history class. His friend Juanita suggests that perhaps Ryan fell asleep in class. Ryan, however, proposes that his brain was temporarily kidnapped by aliens from another planet. Most psychologists would prefer Juanita's explanation on several grounds, including that it is more _____.

    A. psychoanalytic
    B. parsimonious
    C. statistical
    D. correlational
    B. parsimonious
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Theories are frequently expressed in terms of abstract concepts (such as intelligence). In psychology, these abstract concepts are often referred to as ____.

    A. data
    B. operational definitions
    C. constructs
    D. hypotheses
    C. constructs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. An illusory correlation is ______.

    A. a correlation that has been increasing in strength over time
    B. a correlation between a psychological variable and physical variable
    C. an imagined or greatly exaggerated correlation
    D. a correlation that is positive at some times and negative at other times.
    C. an imagined or greatly exaggerated correlation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Resarch conducted by social psychologists is primarily focused on learning more about _____.

    A. how behavior is influenced by other people
    B. how behavior develops as a function of age
    C. the role of learning and emmory in behavior
    D. how human behavior differs from the behavior of non-human mammals
    A. how behavior is influenced by other people
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which approach hto psychology often thought of minds as being similar to computers?

    A. Behaviorism
    B. Structuralism
    C. Gestalt Psychology
    D. Cognitive Psychology
    D. Cognitive Psychology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. A testable prediciton of waht will happen under certain conditions is known as a _____.

    A. demand characteristic
    B. hypothesis
    C. replication
    D. correlation
    B. hypothesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Psychological science is best defined as the study of ______.

    A. observable behaviors
    B. philosophical conjectures about the mind
    C. mental illness
    D. mental processes that are not directly observable
    E. both A and B
    E. both A and B
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. The field of psychology known as ergonomics or human factors concentrates on _____.

    A. designing machinery and instructions so people can understand them more easily and accurately
    B. fostering cooperation between groups of people with a history of hostility
    C. imporving education for children who learn slowly or differently from others
    D. understanding the evolution of the human mind
    A. designing machinery and instructions so people can understand them more easily and accurately
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Suppose that researchers conducted a correlational study and found that happy people tend to be healthier than unhappy people. From this kind of information alone, which of the following is an appropriate conclusion to draw from the study?

    A. happiness causes good health
    B. health improves poeple's happiness
    C. the same genes and experiences that aid health also promote happiness
    D. none of the above are appropriate conclusions to draw from these results.
    D. none of the above are appropriate conclusions to draw from these results.
  26. A survey team asks questions of a group of people who have been carefully selected to be sure taht they include the same percentages of male and female; old and young; and black, white, asian, and hispanic as the population as a whole. This group of people constitute a _____.

    A. representative sample
    B. convenience sample
    C. random sample
    D. longitudinal sample
    A. representative sample
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. A research randomly assigned participants to rooms in which the noise level was low, moderate, or high. While in their assigned rooms, participants were asked to solve a series of puzzles. the researcher measured the amount of time it took each participant to complete the puzzles. What was the independent variable in this experiment?

    A. the time required to solve the puzzles
    B. the loudness of the noise
    C. the lighting conditions int he rooms
    D. the difficulty of the puzzles
    B. the loudness of the noise
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. If the difference between the average performance of participants in two different experimental gropus is "statistically significant" then _____.

    A. the difference could not have occurred as a result of chance alone
    B. the difference between the average performances in the two groups must be very large
    C. the difference is one that would occur by chance alone only rarely
    D. the result must be of theoretical importance
    C. the difference is one that would occur by chance alone only rarely
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. An anecdote is a _____.

    A. medicine that reverses the effect of a poison
    B. professional psychic
    C. report of an isolated event or occurrence
    D. measure of the variation of results within a group
    C. report of an isolated event or occurrence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. The value of the statistic known as a correlation coefficient ____.

    A. always falls in the range from -1 to +1
    B. alwas falls in the range from 0 to 100
    C. always falls in the range from 0-1
    D. can be any number from zero to infinity
    A. always falls in the range from -1 to +1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which of the followin (if it were true) would most seriously conflict with the assumptions of determinism?

    A. despite being very determined to succeed, people with low levels of intelligence are unable to accomplish as much as people woith high intelligence.
    B. some behaviors are completely spontaneous and occur without any cause of any sort what-so-ever.
    C. some behaviors are controlled mostly by heredity and others mostly by environment
    D. more than one part of the brain can be involved in control of a particular aspect of behavior
    B. some behaviors are completely spontaneous and occur without any cause of any sort what-so-ever.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. ________ psychology is the study of psychological disorders and their treatment.

    A. Clinical
    B. Cognitive
    C. Social
    D. Developmental
    A. Clinical
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Suppose that a psychologist predicts that an 8-week therapy program will be effective in reducing symptoms of depression. He evaluates 60 depressed people at the start of therapy and again at the end of the 8-week treatment program using a standard questionnaire fro measuring depression. At the end of the program, 80% of the participants show improvement compared to their condition prior to therapy. The psychologist concludes taht the therapy was effective. A serious flaw in this study is that it lacks _____.

    A. a descriptive statistic with which to summarize the results
    B. a dependent variable
    C. a control group of depressed people recieving no therapy (or a different therapy) to whom this group of 60 can be compared
    D. a hypothesis
    C. a control group of depressed people recieving no therapy (or a different therapy) to whom this group of 60 can be compared
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. The term for research that is conducted in the location where the behavior normally occurs is _____.

    A. descriptive study
    B. correlational study
    C. self-report study
    D. field study
    D. field study
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. As explained in the textbook, how did Clever Hans, solve arithmetic problems?

    A. by using his native abilities to do arithmetic
    B. by taking advantages of coincidence
    C. with ESP
    D. by watching the examiner for subtle cues
    D. by watching the examiner for subtle cues
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. James, who likes to play golf every Saturday, beliees that it rains more often on Saturdays than on weekdays. However, he is relying entirely on casuals impressions. He has never collected data systematically to test his hypothesis. His belief is most likely an example of _____.

    A. a demand characteristic
    B. an illusory correlation
    C. an independent variable
    D. the rational method
    B. an illusory correlation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. The main advantage of an experimental study, in contrast to a correlational study, is that an experiment is _____.

    A. can answer questions related to cause-and-effect
    B. less likely to be influenced by independent variables
    C. less likely to raise ethical questions
    D. quicker and easier to conduct
    A. can answer questions related to cause-and-effect
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Wilhelm Wundt is known for _____.

    A. being the first person to recieve a Ph. D. in psychology in the United States
    B. establishing the first mental-health clinic
    C. being the founder of the perspective known as Behaviorism
    D. establishing the first laboratory for psycholoical research
    D. establishing the first laboratory for psycholoical research
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Supporters of the of free will disagree most directly with the idea that _____.

    A. the mind and brain are separate entities
    B. all behaviors have causes that scientists can study
    C. people can sometimes change their opinions
    D. people have a conscious mind
    B. all behaviors have causes that scientists can study
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Which of the following claims would be the most difficult to falsify?

    A. "Dreams are expressions of unconscious desires and use symbols to hide their true meaning from the conscious mind."
    B. "People identify the direction of a sound source by comaparing the response in the left ear with the response in the right ear"
    C. "Children who spend much time in day care centers before the age of 1develop about the same personality as those reared at home by their parents."
    D. "A behavior that is followed by a reward will occur more often than it would if not followed by a reward"
    A. "Dreams are expressions of unconscious desires and use symbols to hide their true meaning from the conscious mind."
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Saying that a research result is replicable means that ____.

    A. researchers who repeat the procedure get similar results
    B. it is statistically significant
    C. appropriate research methods were used
    D. the experimental group behaves the same way as the control group
    A. researchers who repeat the procedure get similar results
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. As used in science, the word theory refers to ______.

    A. a speculation
    B. a fact
    C. an untested prediction
    D. an idea (often one that has been tested) that explains a set of facts
    D. an idea (often one that has been tested) that explains a set of facts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Which of the following clearly could not serve as a useful operational definition of "interest in sports"?

    A. the number of hours one spends watching sports on television
    B. the amount of money one spends on sporting goods per month
    C. the enjoyment one gets from talking about sports
    D. the number of professional football teams one can name
    C. the enjoyment one gets from talking about sports
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Dr. Jones randomly assigned people to two groups. Thosein the experimental gropu recieved an audio recording that they were told contained a "subliminal message that will improve the listener's self-esteem". As instructed, for three weeks, this group played the recording each night as they fell asleep. The other group recieved no treatment. After three weeks, Dr. Jones interviewed both groups and concluded that people in the experimental group showed higher self-esteem. What change would improve the procedure used in this research?

    A. use a convenience sample of people
    B. run the study without random assignemnt, perhaps letting participants choose whether to be in the control group or the experimental group.
    C. eliminate all independent variables
    D. use a double-blind procedure
    D. use a double-blind procedure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. The nature-nurture issue (or nature versus nurture debate) is the question of how the development of behavior depends on _____.

    A. health and nutrition
    B. the external situation, free-will, or both
    C. heredity, the environment, or both
    D. the physical environment and the social environment
    C. heredity, the environment, or both
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Random assignment ______.

    A. is a means of deciding which participants will be in each treatment (or control) group
    B. is a means of eliminating the need for any dependent variables
    C. converts a correlational design into a descriptive design
    D. allows the independent variable to be held constant for all groups
    A. is a means of deciding which participants will be in each treatment (or control) group
  47. With which psychological perspective is the phrase "The whole is greater than (or different from) the sum of its parts" most closely associated?

    A. Cognitive Psychology
    B. Structuralism
    C. Gestalt Psychology
    D. Behaviorism
    C. Gestalt Psychology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. John noticed a patch of mushrooms growing in his yard and felt intensely curious about whether they were edible or posionous. Fortunately, his neighbor was a biologist who conducts research on toxic mushrooms, and John decided to ask her whether the mushrooms were safe to eat. John was using the ______ to acquire knowledge.

    A. rational method (method of logical reasoning)
    B. method of intuition
    C. method of authority
    D. empirical method
    C. method of authority
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Suppose that a study using a correlational design found a positive relationship between a) the number of times children got in trouble with the law (e.g., were caught shoplifting) and b) the number of hours their mothers worked outside the home. That is, children whose mothers worked more hours outside the home were more likely to get into trouble with the police. suppose also that the study included a large number of participants and that the results were "statistically significant". With no additional information, which of the following conclusions are appropriate to draw from the results of this research?

    A. a reduction in maternal contact causes criminal behavior in children
    B. The criminal tendencies of some children cause their mothers to find as many opportunities as possible to be out of the home in order to avoid contact with their children.
    C. due the type of research design, neither A nor B is an appropriate conclusion.
    D. both A and B
    C. due the type of research design, neither A nor B is an appropriate conclusion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Cognitive psychology is similar to behaviorism in its ____.

    A. preference for self-reports instead of objective observation.
    B. emphasis on studies of non-human animals
    C. reliance on laoratory experiments in which behavior is observed
    D. rejection of all discussion of thinking
    C. reliance on laoratory experiments in which behavior is observed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
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Psych Exam #1
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answers for first psych exam
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