Anatomy test one

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Anatomy test one
2012-02-06 23:32:06

first test.
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  1. anatomy
    study of structure
  2. physiology
    study of funtion
  3. gross anatomy
    visible to eye
  4. tissue
    organization of similar cells to form a function
  5. organ
    2 or more specific tissue types
  6. anatomical position
    • body erect
    • arms to side
    • face forward
    • palms up
  7. saggital plane
    vertical splits body in two halfs(left and right)
  8. mid-saggital plane
    exactly in middle
  9. transverse plane
    cuts in top and bottom
  10. superior
    closer to head
  11. inferior
    closer to feet
  12. dorsal/posterior
    back side
  13. ventral/anterior
    front side
  14. medial
    towards midline of body
  15. lateral
    away from midline
  16. proximal
    closest to point of attachment to trunk
  17. distal
    furthest from point of attachment to trunk
  18. superficial
    on the outside
  19. deep
    on the inside
  20. flexion
    angle between articulating bones decreases, usually in sagital plane
  21. lateral flexion
    the vertebral column moves in either lateral direction along a coronal plane
  22. extension
    angle between articulating bones increases, usually in sagital plane
  23. hyperextension
    extension movement continues past the anatomic position
  24. abduction
    movement of a bone away from midline
  25. adduction
    movement of a bone toward the midline
  26. inversion
    twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole inward
  27. eversion
    twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole outward
  28. pronation
    rotation of the forearm whereby the palm is turned posteriorly
  29. supination
    rotation of the forearm whereby the palm is turned anteriorly
  30. dorsiflexion
    andle joint movement whereby the dorsum of the foot is brought closer to the anterior of the leg
  31. plantarflexion
    ancle joint movement whereby the sole of the foot is brought closer to the posterior surface of leg
  32. circumduction
    the distal end of the limb or digit moves in a circle
  33. elevation
    movement of a body part superiorly
  34. depression
    movement of a body part inferiorly
  35. protraction
    anterior movement of a body part from anatomic position
  36. retraction
    posterior movement of a body part from anatomical position
  37. oppostition
    special movement of the thumb across the palm toward the fingers to permit grasping and holding an object.
  38. rotation
    piviting motion in which a bone turns on its own longitudinal axis.
  39. viscera
    external suface of organs
  40. serous membrane
    • lines thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
    • composed of 2 layers, parietal and visceral
  41. serous fluid
  42. basement membrane
    thin layer between the epithelium and the underlying connective tissue
  43. keratin
    a fibrous intracellular protein.
  44. ground substance
  45. extracellular matrix
    ground substance and protein fibers.
  46. collagen
    an important protein that stregthens and supports almost all body tissues, especially connective
  47. elastin
  48. lacunae
    small spaces within the extracellular matrix. occupied by chondrocytes
  49. chondrocyte
    mature cartilage cells
  50. hydroxyapatite
  51. compact bone
    appears solid but is in fact perforated by a number of vascular canals
  52. spongy bone
    located within the interior of a bone. contains spaces, lightweight.
  53. osteon
    cylindrical structure that create ordered pattern in compact bone
  54. canaliculi
  55. trabeculae
  56. osteoblast
  57. osteoclast
  58. osteoprogenitor
  59. diaphysis
    the shaft of a long bone
  60. epiphysis
    knobby region at the end of a long bone
  61. epiphyseal plate
  62. periosteum
    a tough sheath that covers the outer surface of the bone
  63. endosteum
    incomplete later of cells that cover all internal surfaces of the bone.
  64. medullary cavity
  65. red bone marrow
    a connective tissue in which blood cells are produced
  66. yellow bone marrow
    as children mature into adults, much of the red bone marrow degenerates and turns into this fatty tissue
  67. nutrient foramen
  68. ossification (osteogensesis)
    the formation and development of a bone connective tissue
  69. insterstitial bone growth
    a long bones growth in length
  70. appositional bone growth
    a long bones growth in diameter
  71. axial skeleton
    the bones along the central axis of body, skull, vertebrae, and thoracic
  72. appendicular skeleton
    consist of bones on appendages.
  73. origin
    the less moble attachment of the muscle
  74. insertion
  75. epimysium
    a layer of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the whole skeletal muscle
  76. perimysium
    surrounds the fasicles
  77. endomysium
  78. sarcomere
    the functional contractile unit of a skeletal muscle fiber
  79. fasicles
    bundles of muscle fibers
  80. A band
    • area of overlapping thin actin and thick myosin
    • appears dark
  81. I band
    • area of only thin actin
    • appears light
  82. Z disc
    connectins in the middle of the I band where actins attach together
  83. M line
    Dark line of proteins in the H zone that connect the thick myosin filaments together.
  84. H zone
    light, central region in A band. only thick myosin filaments
  85. syncytium
  86. myofibrils
    cylindrical structures composed of myofilaments
  87. glycogen granules
  88. myoglobin
  89. actin
  90. myosin
  91. troponin
    • regular protein
    • attaches to actin to anchor itself in place
    • attaches to tropomyosin
    • provides a binding site for calcium ions
  92. tropomyosin
  93. T-tubules
  94. sarcoplasmic reticulum
  95. terminal cisternae
  96. triad
  97. sliding filament model
  98. motor unit
  99. all or none principal
  100. muscle tone
  101. neuromuscular junction
  102. slow oxidative
  103. fast glycolytic
  104. fast oxidative
  105. intercalated disc
  106. multiunit smooth muscle
  107. visceral smooth muscle