POLS 1337

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tjneal
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133278
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POLS 1337
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2012-02-09 13:32:48
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POLS 1337 Political Science Houston
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POLS 1337 Exam 1 Study Cards
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  1. Which group prioritizes the expansion of personal freedoms over religion and morality?
    Liberals
  2. Which group prioritizes religion and morality over personal freedom?
    Convservatives
  3. Liberals prioritize _____ _____ over morality and religion in politics and law.
    Personal freedom
  4. Conservatives prioritize _____ and _____ in law and politics over personal freedom.
    morality (and) religion
  5. Moderates are defined with some _____ tendencies, in agreement with conservatives.
    moral
  6. Conservatives have the moderate advantage when dealing with the idea of _____ tendencies.
    Moral
  7. Liberals believe that religion ("should" / "should not") be a part of the government.
    "should not".
  8. Conservatives believe that religion ("should"/"should not") be a part of government.
    "should"
  9. Liberals and Illegal immigration:
    • Illegals should have an opportunity for citizenship (they're not criminals)
    • The "land of opportunity" principle of America still holds true.
    • There would be an economic benefit!
  10. _____ believe that illegals should be given an opportunity at citizenship. They want to uphold the land-of-opportunity principle, and believe illegals contribute to our economy.
    "Liberals"
  11. Conservatives and Illegals
    • They believe people who don't go through the process should be punished - otherwise we're encouraging illegal behavior.
    • Immigrants should assimilate to our culture.
    • The border should become more secure.
    • Taxation is increased because of them!
  12. _____ believe illegals should be punished. They should also assimilate, and we should make the border more secure. They are sinking our economy with what they're doing.
    Conservatives
  13. Moderates side with ______ on the illegal immigration issue. Why?
    "conservatives" - because it is illegal and there can be no accountability, and we're being overwhelmed.
  14. Business wants illegal immigration reform to ("maintain"/"change"). Why?
    "maintain" - Illegals work hard and for low pay too. They want to maintain the status quo.
  15. Liberals and Accused Terror Suspects
    • All suspects have a right to an attorney. All people should have basic civil liberties.
    • They need to be protected from abuse of governemnt power - indefinite detention is abuse.
  16. ______ want to protect accused terror suspects from abuse of government power. They want all terror suspects to have an attorney and to know the charges.
    Liberals
  17. Conservatives and Accused Terror Suspects
    • Terrorists are enemy combatants and should be detained until the end of the war.
    • They'll be less likely to reveal crucial information if they have a lawyer there (which causes terror attacks to happen)
  18. ______ believe that terror suspects should be detained for as long as it takes, without an attorney. If they have an attorney, they will talk less and we'll get hit again.
    "Conservatives"
  19. Moderates side with ________ on dealing with accused terror suspects. Why?
    "Conservatives" - We have to win the war by whatever means necessary to keep others from harming American soil.
  20. Liberals and War
    • They believe all means of diplomacy should be tried first.
    • If force is necessary, team up with others.
    • Work with UN whenever possible.
    • Always move to end hostilities.
  21. _______ believe that all means of diplomacy should be used before war, and that if we had to, we should do it with other countries. Also, they believe that we should always be finding ways to end hostilities.
    "liberals"
  22. Conservatives and War
    • They believe diplomacy has to be backed up with potential force, AND
    • that we should act unilaterally to maintain America's status, AND
    • ignore the U.N. if it opposes U.S. interests, AND
    • that we should escalate combat until we defeat our enemy.


  23. Define: unilateral
    Acting alone in the use of force (conservatives favor this)
  24. Define: multilateral
    Acting with multiple countries in the use of force (liberals favor this)
  25. ________ believe that diplmoacy must be backed up by the threat of potential force. They also think we should act alone (unilaterally) to preserve our status. We should also ignore the U.N. if they go against us, and escalate conflict until our enemies are defeated.
    "Conservatives"
  26. Moderates lean towards the side of __________ in their ideologies about the use of force or war. Why?
    "conservatives" - because most Americans have an attitude of "America first", so they want whatever is going to protect our interests.
  27. China has economically become a more ______ society since 1980.
    "capitalistic"
  28. In 1980, China was a more economically _______ society than it is today.
    Socialist
  29. Despite it's economic shift towards capitalism, how does it handle civil liberties?
    China has historically been a very public-safety-oriented society, sacrificing many civil liberties to "protect" its' public. For instance they censor their internet, squash any protesting, etc.
  30. Why is Iran further away from the civil-liberties side of the international graph?
    Because Iran's society is very socially (religiously) conservative than that which exists in many other places today (America). They're having debates over P.D.A., which in America is absolutely fine. They wouldn't even THINK about gay marriage because it's so out of the norm for them.
  31. Describe the relatively new Texas Sonogram Law (regarding abortions)
    It required abortion doctors to take a sonogram, describe the fetus in detail, and have the woman listen to the heartbeat.
  32. What was the real purpose of the new Texas sonogram law?
    To make women feel guilty about having an abortion and to encourage them not to.
  33. How many abortions are performed in Texas each year?
    80,000
  34. How does Mexico benefit from illegal immigration?
    The money sent back to Mexico from illegal immigrants is the second largest income for the Mexican economy (second to oil revenue).
  35. Who or what wants illegal immigrants to stay and work in America?
    Big business. They get cheap, hard workers. It is a mutual relationship, and they're looking to keep laws lax about illegals.
  36. What are the economic "cons" of illegal immigration?
    Higher taxes to compensate for those public goods that benefit the illegals that are not paying taxes.
  37. What are the economic "pros" to illegal immigration?
    It helps big business find cheaper labor in the U.S., they're doing the dirty hands-on jobs that nobody else wants, and in turn it gives business more money to spend on creating jobs for legal citizens.
  38. Why was the decision to ban prayer in public school so important an achievement for the Supreme Court?
    It showed that the Supreme Court had power outside of the majority opinion to protect the civil liberties of the minority.
  39. Moderates side with _______ on the Prayer in School issue. Why?
    "conservatives" - Because most Americans believe that children need a moral code in their lives. They believe prayer is a good thing and hurts nobody.
  40. When was "under God" put into the pledge of allegience and why?
    • "Under God" was put in the pledge in the 1950s.
    • It was put in there to make a statement against the athiest (Godless) Soviet Union. It was to put "God on our side."
    • Many people argue this is a promotion of religion by government (unconstitutional).
  41. Why would Obama, historically a civil-liberties-advocate, vote for a domestic spying program in Congress?
    Because this vote came shortly before election time. Republicans could have used this as a issue against Obama in the race ("He doesn't take National Security seriously.")
  42. What is unusual about the different stances on gun control?
    It is a very slippery slope - conservatives worry that they'll lose the advantage, so they push very hard to keep it. They push so hard that they even try to stop bans on "cop-killer" bullets and military rifles. They're afraid they'll lose their handgun rights altogether.
  43. What did the Supreme Court decide in 2008 on gun control?
    They further defined and interpreted the 2nd Ammendment. While some were trying to abolish it as an outdated relic of an ammendment, the majority [5 to 4] were convinced it was still necessary for self-defense (or in protection of one's home).
  44. Why don't Democrats try and do something about the gun control issue?
    The last time they tried (90s - Clinton) the NRA gave them the smack down, making them lose a bunch of seats in the House/Senate. Democrats put in a law for a 5-day waiting period on gun ownership.
  45. What is the "Good Neighbor" policy?
    It is a policy favored by liberals in which the United States should be kind to other nations, not interfering as much as we do. Our kindness, however, is expected to be paid back in some way - it is a very "we scratch your back, you scratch ours" way of thinking.
  46. What is the "peace through strength" doctrine?
    Favored by conservatives - has to do with our willingness to use force ("potential threat"). Security concerns is the number one priority for this doctrine, and other countries are threatened by this pressure.
  47. Define: dissent
    A way to express opposition to the policies of the leaders in office.
  48. "A way to express opposition to the policies of the leaders in office."
    Dissent
  49. How do liberals feel about dissent?
    They think dissent is healthy for democracy, and that it is a fundamental right for all citizens.
  50. _______ believe that dissent is healthy for democracy, and that it is a fundamental right for all citizens.
    Liberals
  51. How do conservatives feel about dissent?
    They feel we should all support war efforts, and dissenters are undermining U.S. efforts by opening up a battle of public opinion.
  52. Moderates favor ________ in their ideologies about dissent. Why?
    "conservatives" - they believe that we should support the government in a time of war.
  53. Define: ideological spectrum
    One dimensional line separating liberals and conservatives. Liberals are left, moderates are center, conservatives are right.
  54. Where does the majority of America fall today in the ideological spectrum?
    Moderately conservative. (just to the right of center)
  55. How is advantage calculated for ideologies?
    Simple: if moderates side with conservatives, then conservatives have the advantage. If moderates side with liberals, liberals have the advantage.
  56. What is the "appeal to fairness" doctrine?
    It has to do with the Conservative's argument of the death penalty. "Why should a heinous murderer live when the victim dies?"
  57. Catholic Church v. Religious Conservatives on abortion?
    They agree, God should be the only one to take away the innocent life of the baby.
  58. Catholic Church v. Religious Conservatives on Death Penalty?
    Catholic Church believes that only God should take away life, but U.S. Conservatives believe that theres a difference - in abortion it's an innocent baby, in the death penalty, it's a heinous murderer.
  59. What did the French Prime Minister say at Harvard in 2007?
    Death penalty goes against all Democratic principles.
  60. Who famously mentioned that the death penalty goes against all Democratic principles?
    The French Prime Minister at a speech in Harvard in 2007.
  61. How has Obama protected himself from being negatively labeled on the issue of national security?
    He voted for the domestic spying program in 2008.
  62. Which issue do Democrats and Republicans disagree the MOST about?
    "Scope of government"
  63. Which issue do Democrats and Republicans disagree the LEAST about?
    Political engagement.
  64. What is the controversy of stem cell research?
    An embryo dies in the process of extracting its cells... pro-life advocates view the embryo as a human being.
  65. Why could Obama repeal Don't Ask Don't Tell, but Clinton could not?
    Clinton did not have the public support to allow gays to openly serve in the military. The public opinion in 2010 was much stronger - at 70% it was much easier to pass legislation allowing this.
  66. How has Obama's presidency affected racial tensions in America?
    African Americans now feel more empowered to vote, and to solve issues.
  67. Which one of Obama's initiatives is being vigorously opposed by the Republican Party?
    Universal Health Care - they are going to the courts with this one.
  68. What % of Muslim countries approve of Obama's handling of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict?
    Around 6%-26% (fairly low) of Muslim countries approve of how Obama is handling the conflict.
  69. Of Arab/Muslim countries, how do they feel U.S. considers their interests?
    Anywhere from 50%-77% (majority) says that the U.S. does not consider their interests much at all, while the minority (17-43%) think that we consider it a fair amount.
  70. What was the long-term goal of "Leading from Behind" in Libya?
    The goal is to stop the sentiments that the U.S. is a hegemony that is all-powerful and does whatever it pleases, to the feeling that U.S. is now a cooperative partner, who pleases its' allies in Muslim nations as well as supports the U.N.
  71. What is the goal of the Obama's initiative with the Nuclear Security Summit?
    He wants to ensure that people think of America as a good neighbor by avoiding the use of implied threats. He hopes this will encourage more cooperation on non-proliferation efforts.
  72. How did public opinion of US change in Russia after the announcement to change the Missile Defence Policy of Europe?
    Positively - Russia agreed to multiple things (allowing U.S. to fly over Russian airspace, backing off opposition to the airbase in Kyrgystan, signed the new START treaty, etc.)
  73. Why is Guantanamo Bay still open if the President prioritized closing it?
    Because his Congress of Democrats refused to vote yes for the bill, since this would give America a "weak" stance in the foreign opinions, and they don't want it used against them in campaigning.
  74. Why does John Brennan believe characterizing our enemy (AL Qaeda) as religious extremist is counterproductive/wrong?
    He says that they're "[not] religious leaders defending a holy cause...., they are in fact nothing more than mass murderers..."
  75. Obama's 12th Quarter approval rating?
    43.3%
  76. As far as approval ratings go, to which past REELECTED presidents does Obama compare to?
    Nixon, Reagan, and Clinton.
  77. As far as approval ratings go, to which past NOT REELECTED presidents does Obama compare to?
    Ford, Carter, and Bush (#1). They were grappling with a sluggish economy, too.
  78. How does Pew report "self-reported ideology"?
    They poll people, asking if they consider themselves liberal, moderate, or conservative.
  79. How has self-reported ideology changed from 2006-2009?
    Slightly less liberals, slightly more conservatives.
  80. What Rachel Maddow concludes about the effectiveness of the political terrorism orchestrated by extreme anti-abortion (pro-life) advocates?
    “This terrorism…is working. Violence as a political strategy is working to make abortion so unsafe for doctors that they are unwilling to bear (rawr) the risks of performing it so women can’t actually get one regardless of it’s legal. They’re winning.” (5:06)
  81. How did the gay marriage issue benefit George Bush during his reelection bid in 2004?
    “a potential of 4 million fundamentalists Christians voting for George Bush who did not vote at all in 2000” (8:42) & “they expect the move will cost Bush over 1 million votes from gays and lesbians who otherwise would have voted for him” (9:07)
  82. What was a country commissioner’s response when asked why he doesn’t jaw-bone businesses to get their cooperation on illegal immigration?
    (10:10) "they're at for profit, they're not interested in the tax bottom line. 'But I can't stay open without this labor force!' Well I say 'bump' to that!" ..... what the fuck does bump mean?
  83. What was the issue for the grand jury in the Joe Horn case?
    Whether or not the right to defend yourself covers the broad scope of defending others as well.
  84. What did Obama say might have happened had he continued Bush-era “aggressive interrogation” tactics?
    “great advertisement for anti-American sentiment” (1:10) & “entire Muslim world and Arab world will despise us” (2:57)
  85. What Obama had to say about military tribunals?
    "They allow for the protection of sensitive sources and methods of intelligence gathering. They allow for the safety and security of participants.” (4:30)
  86. What are the American people’s “schizophrenic” preferences (be specific)?
    “we dislike government in the abstract, but we love government in the particular, strong majorities don’t want any more stimulus spending, but 80% of the public wants employment benefits extended and more money put into roads and bridges (stimulus spending)” (1:00)
  87. What Obama said that would be consistent with his “good neighbor” approach to the outside world (Obama does not use the phrase “good neighbor,” but try to think about what that policy means)?
    “we shouldn’t glorify war, but we should accept that there are times that we have to defend our nation and protect values…it makes sense for us to interfere in genocide and humanitarian efforts”
  88. What Obama said that was a recognition of the views of peace advocates on war (after the quote, “those of us who so badly want peace…”)?
    “those of us who so badly want peace sometimes war is necessary” (2:58)
  89. Why NASA administrator Charles Bolden was tasked to engage the dominantly Muslim countries?
    "to help them feel good about their contribution to science and engineering" (:40)
  90. Byron York’s (Washington Examiner) comment on why the Obama administration felt NASA outreach could improve America’s image in the Muslim world?
    "they promoted interest through accomplishments"

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