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What are the functions of the kidneys?
- Preserves homeostasis
- Excretes metabolic wastes
- Regulates PH
- Major regulator of BP
Where do the kidneys receive thier blood?
Directly from the aorta via the renal arteries
How much blood goes to the kidneys per minute?
25% or 1200 ml/min
What is normal average urine output?
Which nervous system supplies the renal system?
What influences the volume of urine excreted?
- Blood Concentration
- Water accounts for 95%
- 1.8 liters are produced from 180 liters of plasma
What does Creatinine tell you?
How well you are filtering "stuff"
What are the indications of Acute Renal Failure?
- >50% decrease in glomular filtration rate
- Increase in BUN and Creatinine
What are teh three causes of Acute Renal Failure?
- Prerenal failure (Hypotension)
- Intrinsic failure (Acid/Base Imbalance)
- Postobstructive renal failure (Kidney Stone)
What does a normal Creatinine and low BUN indicate?
How do you calculate Anion Gap?
(Na+K) - (Cl+HCO3)
What is normal Anion Gap?
What is Uremia?
Anion Gap Acidosis
What are the indications of uremia?
- ABG (to determine metabolic acidosis)
- reduced serum HCO3
- Elevated BUN and Creatinine
Treatment of Uremia?
- Correct Acidosis and hyperkalemia
- Nahco3, CaCl or Ca Gluconate, Insulin and D50
What is the most common cause of UTI?
gram negative bacteria
S/S for Toxic Shock?
- abd. pain
Treatment for Toxic Shock is?
- Removal of instigating body (tampon, surgical sponge)
- hemodynamic management
What is dark brown urine caused from?