Psychology of Learning

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Psychology of Learning
2012-02-06 18:32:24
psych learning

psych learning
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  1. Accidental Reinforcement
    An isntance in whihc the delivery of a reinforcer happnes to coincide with a particular response, even though that response was not resposbile for the reinforcer presnetiaons. (adventitious reinfrocemnt)

    Ex. This is what skinner came up with leaving birds at own devices and food comes at intervals,not dependent on birds
  2. Appetitive stimulus
    A pleasant or satisfying stimulus that can be used to positiviely reinforce an instrumental response
  3. Aversive Stimulus
    an unpleasant or annoying stimulus that can be used to punish an instrumental response
  4. Avoidance
    An instrumental conditioing procedure in which the instrumental response prevents the delivery of an aversive stimulus

    Ex. Do this to not get zapped
  5. Belongingnes
    The theoretical idea, orgianlly proposed by thorndike that an organisms evolutionary histroy makes certatin response fit or beling with certain reinforcers

    The fish bitting rod when male is present
  6. Conditioned reinforcer
    • A stimulus that becomes an effective reinforcer because of its assocation with a primary or unconditioned stimulus
    • (secondary reinforcer)
  7. Contiguity
    The occurence of two events, such as a response and a reinforcer, very close together in time. (temporal contiguity)
  8. Differntial reinforcment of other behavior (DRO)
    An instrumental conditioing procedure in which a positive reinforcer is periodically delvierd only if the subject does something other than the targer response
  9. Discrete Trial procedure
    A metjhod of instrumental conditioing in which the subject can perfrom the instrumental resposne only during specified periods usually determined either by a placement of the participant in an experimental chamber or by the presentation of a stimulus

    Ex. maze trials
  10. Escape
    An instrumental condtiioning proceudre in which the instrumental resposne terminates an aversive stimulus
  11. Free operant procedure
    A method of instrumental conditioing that permits repeated performacne of the intsrumental resposne without intervention by anyone

    Ex lever pressing
  12. Insticntive Drift
    A gradual drift of instrumental behavior away from the response required for reinfomece to species-typical, or instincive, response related to the reinforcer and to other stmiuli in the experimental situation

    Pigs eat on ground so will not do shit like lift up for food
  13. Instrumental behavior
    an activiey that occurs becasue it is effective in producing a particular consquence or reinforeecer
  14. Interim response
    a response that increase in frequency after the delivery of a periodic reinforcer, and then declines as time for the next reinforcer approaches
  15. latency
    time between start of a trial or stimulus and resposne
  16. law of effect
    A rule for instrumental behavior, porposed by Thorndike which states that if a response in the presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, the association between the stimulus and teh resposne will be strengthend and if the respinse is follwed by an annoying event the association will be weakend.
  17. learned helplessness effect
    Interference with the learning of new instrumental responses as a result of exposure to inescapble and unavoidable aversive stimulation
  18. Learned helplessness hypothesis
    A theoretical idea that assumes that during exposure to inescapanle and unavoidable aversive stimulation participants learn that their behavior does not control enviroment events, This reduces motivation to respond and disrupts subsequent intrumental conditioning
  19. Magazine Trainig
    A prelimnianry stage of instrumental conditiong in which a stimulus is repeatedly paired with the reinforcer to enable the participant to learn to go and get the reinforcer with it is presented.

    Ex. The sound of the food delvery device
  20. Marking procedure
    a procedure in whihc the instruemntal respinse is immediatly followed by a distinctive event that makes the insturmental resposne mroe memorable and helps overcome the deleterious effects of delyared reinforcemnet
  21. negative contrast
    Less responding for a less desired or small reinfrocer following previous expereince with a more desired or large reinforcer than in the absence of such prior experience
  22. negative reinforcemnt
    taking away of aversive stimulus once desired response has been done
  23. omision training
    an instrumental conditiong procedure in whihc the intsrumental response prevents the delivery of a reinforcing stimulus
  24. Operant response
    A response that is defined by the effect it producies in the enviroment.

    Ex. Lever pressing
  25. Positivie Contrast
    A greater resposne for a favorable or larger reinforcer following previous expereince with a less desired or small reinforcer than in the absence of such prior experience
  26. positive reinforcement
    rewarding subject with something when desired response is perfomerd
  27. Positive Punishment
    Adding aversive stimulus if undesired response is perfomred
  28. Negative punishment
    removing good stimulus when undesired response is perfomred
  29. respoonse -reinforcer contingency
    the relation of a response to a reinforcer defined in terms of the probability of getting reinforced for making the resposne as compared to the probalbity of getting reinforce for making the responce as compared to the probability of getting reinforce in the absece of the repsonse
  30. Running speed
    speed of animal to goal
  31. shaping
    training thourgh reinforcemnt to reach deisred resposne
  32. superstitious behavior
    Behavoir that increases in frequecny due ot accidental associations
  33. Temporal relations
    the time interavle between an intrumentla resonse and the reinforcer
  34. Terminal Resonse
    A resposne that is most likey at the end of the interval betqweeen succesibe reinformde that are presented at fixed intervals