Bio 1200 test 1

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Bio 1200 test 1
2012-02-06 20:24:04
Bio 1200 test

Flashcards for first bio test
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  1. Thomas Malthus argued that population growth tends to be exponential
    while growth of the population's food base tends to be geometric.
  2. _______________proposed that species evolve due to natural selection.
    Wallace & Darwin
  3. The total number of species living on earth today has been estimated to be as high as
    100 million
  4. The evolutionary history of a group in organisms, which is often illustrated in tree-like form to depict relationships among members of
    the group
  5. When biologists do descriptive science, they must use the scientific method.
  6. Your study partner in BIOL1200 looked over the results of the Echinacea experiment and concluded that although Echinacea treatment does not prevent common colds, it does shorten the duration of a cold, following infection. Do you agree with his conclusion?
  7. The view that species do not change over time is associated with which species concept?
    typological species concept
  8. A vestigial trait represents a character that
    changed substantially to the point that it no longer performs the function for which it originally evolved
  9. Structural homologies refer to morphological characters that arose from a common ancestor, have the same general structure, but can have very different functional roles.
  10. One line of support for species descending from a common ancestor is the
    observation that similar, closely related species often occur in the
    same geographic region.
  11. The brown chipmunk’s color is
    coded by a single gene characterized by a single allele that produces a
    brown pigment. Volcanic ash covers the landscape after a recent
    eruption, such that the ground, where these chipmunks live, is changed
    from brown soil to light gray ash. What is the most likely outcome for
    this population of chipmunks?
    most members of the population will probably be consumed by predators
  12. The algebraic symbol 2pq in Hardy's formula represents
    the frequency of heterozygous offspring in the next generation
  13. The evolution of deeper beak size in the medium ground finch population on Daphne Major is the result of
    Selection for those individuals in the population with larger beaks
  14. Which explanation in question 3 is consistent with a Lamarckian view of beak evolution?
    Enlarged jaw muscles due to continual use in cracking larger seeds
  15. Term used to describe a heritable trait that increases an individual's fitness in certain environments.
  16. Which set of symbols is consistent with a homozygous genotype for a gene that exhibits codominance?
  17. A population's allelic frequencies of A and a are 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. After one round of random mating, the frequency of heterozygotes in the next generation will be ____.
  18. Natural selection acts on____
  19. A species of wildflower has flower color determined by a single locus, with the following phenotypes (genotypes): red (CR CR), white (CW CW), and pink (CRCW).
    A population consists of 64% red-flowered plants, 4% white-flowered
    plants, and 32% pink-flowered plants. What is the frequency for allele
  20. Which of Darwin's four postulates best illustrate how he was influenced by Thoma Malthus's An Essay on the Principles of Population?
    More offspring are produced per generation than can survive
  21. What are the assumptions of H-W?
    There is no

    • 1Nonrandom mating (with respect to the gene in
    • question) 2Natural selection 3Mutation 4Gene flow 5Genetic drift
  22. Phylogeny
    the evolutionary history of organisms
  23. Biodiversity is
    variety of life on earth and the natural patterns this variation creates.
  24. Biodiversity is measured by
    the number of species
  25. Scientific theory
    • Patten in nature vs process responsible for the
    • pattern
  26. Typotypic species concept
    • Every species was a perfect type and therefore
    • unchanging and independent of one another.
  27. Great chain of being
    • Although species are “fixed,” they had an organization
    • sequence, from small and simple to large and complex.
  28. Malthus’ idea
    • Populations grow geometrically but their food
    • supply grows arithmetically, species grow faster than food source.
  29. Who had views on the process of evolution that were identical to Darwin’s?
    Alfred Russel Wallace
  30. transitional form
    • A structure that served a purpose in one species but
    • changes to serve another purposeLobed- fins to limbs in evolving species
  31. What are vestigial traits? Give some examples.
    • Traits that are left behind or are shadows of their former
    • selves
    • Tails
    • of monkeys to coccyx (tailbone) of humans.
  32. Homology
    • similarities between species that are the result
    • of common ancestry, either relatively recently or in the distant past
  33. Developmental homology
    • Chicken human and cat embryos are very similar
    • in appearance in early stages, they contain gill pouches and tails
  34. Structural homology
    • similar bone structure in the limbs of several
    • animals, humans, horse, bird, bat
  35. Evolution
    • change in allele frequencies in a population
    • over time.
  36. Adaptation
    • a heritable trait that increases fitness of an
    • individual in a particular environment over individuals lacking the trait.
  37. Georges Cuvier
    • French naturalist who documented fossil animals,
    • concluding that some species had gone extinct.
  38. Charles Lyell
    • British geologist. The earth is complex, and it has
    • taken vast amounts time to form mountains ect, RESULT- people began thinking that the earth was
    • much older than they previously had
  39. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
    • Proposed species change over time through the
    • inheritance of traits acquired from use or disuse.
  40. What is meant by the expression “internal consistency”
    with regard to evolution?
    • All observations are consistent with the idea that
    • one species evolved from another, and observations may even support one another
  41. What are Darwin’s four postulates?
    • 1)Individuals in a population vary in traits
    • 2)Some trait differences are heritable
    • 3)More offspring produced over generation than can
    • survive
    • 4)Individuals with heritable traits that enhance
    • survival tend to produce more offspring, also bearing those traits.
  42. natural vs. artificial selection
    • In artificial, we are the agents of change, in
    • natural, the environment is the agent of change
  43. How many generations of random mating are required to
    reach H-W equilibrium?
  44. What happens to allelic and genotypic frequencies once
    a population is in H-W equilibrium?
    They stay the same
  45. genetic drift
    • A change in allele frequencies in a population due to
    • chance (unlike natural selection, it is undirected and random)
  46. What is genetic drift? What is its role with
    regard to fitness?
    • Random loss and/or fixation of alleles.
    • In the case of allele X and Y, if allele X is lost, Y
    • becomes fit by default
    • Small populations are prone to drift
  47. Genetic bottleneck (type of genetic drift)
    • high mortality strikes individuals at random,
    • creates
  48. Founder Effect (type of genetic drift)
    Small subset leaves a population. When small group settles, their allelic frequencies differ from the original population
  49. What is sexual selection? Who first recognized/proposed it?
    Selection favoring traits that increase an individuals’s ability to obtain or preferentially choose mates. Charles Darwin
  50. List the fundamental asymmetries of sex.
    • Females- Invest substantially in egg production
    • • Produce fewer gametes over
    • lifetime than males
    • • Can invest substantially in rearing young
    • • Produce fewer offspring over lifetime than male
  51. Males-
    • Invest very little in sperm production
    • • Produce far more gametes over lifetime than females
    • • Less likely to invest time and energy in rearing young
    • • Potentially produce many more offspring than females
  52. intra- vs. inter sexual selection
    • Intra-Competition (often male male) for mates
    • Inter-Individuals choose their mates (often female choice)
  53. Why are males often brightly colored?
    So females will be more likely to choose them, as more colorful males may indicate healthier
  54. Is there empirical evidence for the good genes hypothesis?
    Yes, The long call of frogs experiment in which the eggs of the female were combined with the sperm of the males. The long called frogs offspring were superior in all ways to the other
  55. What is male-male competition? Does it
    represent intra- or intersexual selection?
    Males competing for females. Intrasexual
  56. What are the consequences of sexual selection?
    Sexual dimorphism
  57. What is the connection between sexual
    selection and sexual dimorphism?
    Dimorphism-antlers on a deer, red male cardinals and plain females. Different male and female appearences. These are developed through sexual selection
  58. In what ways does mutation differ from other forces
    responsible for evolution?
    It is the source of new variation
  59. What is the typical outcome of gene flow between
    two populations?
    In other words how are the source and recipient
    populations affected?
    Causes allele frequencies in the two population to become more similar with lots gene flow & no NS, allele frequencies can become identical