Intro to Hematology

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Intro to Hematology
2012-02-12 08:53:16

Intro to Hematology
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  1. The study of blood and it's related disorders.
  2. How many liters of blood does the average adult hold?
    4-6 liters
  3. What are the formed elements of the blood?
    Red blood cells, White blood cells, and Platelets
  4. What is the liquid portion od the blood?
  5. Plasma is _________% water.
  6. Plasma is ________% solutes.
  7. Another word for blood cell production.
  8. A sudden onset of symptoms or disease.
  9. A condition whereby the body has a decreased number of red blood cells.
  10. Failure of a tissue or organ to develop normally.
  11. Anemia caused by aplasia of bone marrow or its destruction by chemical agents or physical factors.
    Aplastic (decrease in cell growth)
  12. Persisting over a long period of time.
  13. An injectable substance used to stimulate the bone marrow to produce more cells; type of cytokine
    Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)
  14. As pluripotent cells begin to mature, they will dedicate to a specific cell lineage and will continue their development through various stages of maturation.
  15. Microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to determine the relative number of each type of white blood cell.
    An estimation of white cell, red cell, and platelet counts.
    An inspection of the morphology of red cells, white cells, and platelets.
  16. The red blood cell that carries oxygen to body cells and carbon dioxide away from body cells.
  17. The percentage of red blood cells in the blood
    Hematocrit (Hct)
  18. Blood (frank or discrete) in the urine.
  19. Device used to count red blood cells.
  20. Iron-containing pigment of RBC's that function to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.
    Hemoglobin (Hgb)
  21. Process in which blood clots and bleeding is arrested.
  22. Chronic or acute disease of unknown etiologic factors characterized by unrestrained growth of leukocytes and their precursors in the tissues.
  23. White blood cells (WBC's) that defend against the invasion of foreign material and viruses.
  24. A cancer of the lymphatic system. Doctors differentiate the different lymphomas byt the type of cell that is involved in the makeup of the tumor. Treatments depend on the type of cell that is found.
  25. A hydrolytic enzyme destructive to cell walls of certain bacteria. It is present in body fluids and in granulocytes.
  26. A decreased number of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell.
  27. A depression of each of the normal bone marrow elements (WBC's, RBC's, platelets) in the peripheral blood.
  28. Abnormal variation in shape of RBC's.
  29. An abnormally low number of platelets.
  30. The liquid portion of anticoagulant whole blood contains all the clotting factors necessary for coagulation but in an inactive form.
  31. The fluid portion of blood that has clot.
  32. The process of stopping blood flow. This process involves the harmonious relationship of
    (a) Blood clotting factors
    (b) Blood vessels
    (c) Fibrin-clotting/fibrin-lysing system
  33. Blood is composed of _______% plasma and ______% cells.
    55%, 45%
  34. Process of blood cell production and development of the various cells of the blood.
  35. Bone marrow, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus are all apart of what system.
    Hematopoietic System
  36. Cellular Function:
    Fight infection
    Granulocytes (Neutrophils, Eosinophils, & Basophils)
  37. Cellular Function:
    Cellular (T-cell) and Humoral (B-cell) immunity
  38. Cellular Function:
    Transport oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide
  39. Cellular Function:
    Maintain hemostasis
  40. Theory:
    One cell from which blood cells are derived
    Monophyletic (Unipotential)
  41. Theory:
    There are many cells from which blood cells are derived
    Polyphyletic (Multipotential)
  42. Theory:
    There is a combination of the two theories one followed by many that are responsible for the development of the blood cell.
    Current Theory
  43. True/False: Body will indicate when there is a need of production of RBC's, WBC's and platelets.
  44. What are three types of growth factors?
    • Cytokines
    • Interleukins
    • Colony Stimulating Factor
  45. Glycoproteins used to signal the body.
  46. Regulate blood cell development by mediating proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of cells. Also responsible for wound healing, activating lymphocyte, assisting in the growth in bone marrow transplant.
    Interleukins (IL)
  47. Have action on hematopoeitic cells only.
    Colony Stimulating Factor (CSF)
  48. Origin of Hematopoiesis:
    First ______________weeks of embryonic life, hematopoiesis begins in the ______________.
    Few; yolk sac
  49. Origin of Hematopoiesis:
    During the __________ month, the fetal __________.
    Second; Liver
  50. Origin of Hematopoiesis:
    3rd to 6th month - ________ hematopoeisis occurs.
  51. Origin of Hematopoiesis:
    7th month - shift from the ________ to the _____________.
    Liver; Bone Marrow
  52. Origin or Hematopoiesis:
    Birth - ______ and _______ hematopoietic cell development cease; active site in _______ cavities.
    Liver; spleen; bone
  53. What is the function of bone marrow?
    To supply mature hematopoietic cells in to the peripheral blood in a steady-state condition.
  54. When the body activates liver or spleen for blood production.
    Extramedullary hematopoiesis
  55. Responsible for controlling all cell functions.
  56. Purpose is to detect and localize specific DNA sequences in G-banded metaphase chromosomes using a fluorescent labeled probe.
    Aids in the diagnosis of DiGeorge Syndrome.
    FISH (Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization)
  57. Purpose is to localize DNA or RNA to particular cells in a tissue section.
    ISH (In-Situ Hybridization)
  58. Used to amplify target DNA a billion fold so that it may be easily detected.
    Works by enzamatically replicating one particular segment of DNA in a patient's sample.
    PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
  59. Purpose is to detect RNA.
    RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase PCR)
  60. Analyzes the molecular structure of DNA to identify disease specific genetic alterations.
    Most accurate method of detecting clonal gene rearrangement in lymphoid neoplasms.
    Useful in detecting insertions or deletions of DNA
    Southern Blot
  61. The entire process by which erythrocytes are produced in the bone marrow.
  62. Entity in which there's a combined population of mature red cells and red cell precursors.
    Usually housed in the vasculor space (liver, spleen)

  63. Identify this cell

  64. Identify this cell

  65. Identify this cell