Card Set Information
What does the Cell Theory state:
That all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells
Three main components of the cell theory
all organisms are made of one or more cells
the cell is the fundamental unit of life
all cells come from preexisting cells
What six features do all cells have in common
DNA, RNA, Ribosomes, Proteins, Cytoplasm, Lipid rich cell membrane
What causes the cells size to vary greatly?
The cells function
What are the most abundant and diverse organisms on earth?
What is also known as an extremophiles
What cells primary complement of DNA is enclosed within a nucleus?
Three characteristics of a eukaryotic cell that a prokaryotic cell does not normally have:
Centriole, Lysosome, and Flagellum
Three characteristics of a prokaryotic cell that a eukaryotic cell does not have:
Central vacuole, Cell Wall, and Chloroplast
5 characteristics of prokaryotic cells:
Single celled, smaller, structurally simple, no membrane-bound structures (no organelles), and DNA housed in nucleoid region
Which cell is single-celled?
Which cell is smaller?
Which cell has no membrane-bound structures?
Which cell is structurally simple?
Which cell has DNA housed in nucleoid region?
Which cell is multicellular?
Which cell is larger?
Which cell is structurally complex?
Which cell has membrane bound organelles?
Which cell has DNA housed in membrane-bound nucleus?
5 characteristics of a eukartoic cell:
multicellular, larger, structurally complex, membrane bound organelles, DNA housed in membrane hound nucleus
What regulates the chemicals into and out of the cell?
What is the area between the nucleus and plasma membrane of both plant and animal cells called?
The fluid within the cytoplasm
Not bound by a membrane
What do the hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail form?
What are actual cells that connect one cell to another?
What is the job of a cell?
To make proteins
What allows passage beteen the nucleus and cytoplasm
What is referred to as a fluid mosaic?
The genetic control center of a cell:
Surrounds the nucleus and is noted as a double membrane
Dumps thread like genetic material:
Present in the nucleus of cells that are not currently dividing
Bunch up together and condense into chromosomes
How many chromosomes do humans have?
The number of these does not relate to how inteligent or complex a species is:
What is located in strands of chromatin found in both the nucleus and nucleolus
The site where component parts of ribosomes are made
Makes protein and also known as "the work benches"
Where are most proteins made
rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
Name the component parts of the Endomembrane System:
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - Smooth ER (SER) & Rough ER (RER),
How does the golgi apparatus receive products and send them back out?
What makes lipids?
Smooth ER (SER)
What organelle finishes, sorts, and ships cell products
Used to break down the contents of other vesicles, damaged organelles, or bacteria
Can remove dead organelles
Lysosmes are not located in which cell?
Which cells do not have large central vacuoles?
Where is the pigment contained that makes flowers beautiful colors such as red and blue?
What is contained in the central vacuole and makes flower beautiful colors such as red and blue?
Large membrane bound sac
Can be used for storage of many different materials?
Cells genetic information
Participates in the production of proteins
Structures that manufacture proteins
Carry out all of the cells work, from orchestrating reproduction to processing energy to regulating what enters and leaves the cell
Occupies much of the volume of the cell
Lipid-rich boundary between the cell and its environment
Cell-membrane (Plasma membrane)
What organelles are considered the power stations
chloroplasts and mitochondria
what performs photosynthesis and has a double membrane
a stack of thylakoide
individual disk that can be stacked to make granum
thick fluid within the chloroplast
where is light from sun traped and converted into energy
taking the food you eat and turning it into a chemical form that the cell can use
food ---> fuel
two organelles that have a double membrane
chloroplasts and mitochondria
inner folds that increase surface area
are both in plant and animal cells
network of fibers/ cells internal structure
provides support to the cell
gives mechanical support and helps maintain the shape of the cell
three componenents of the cytoskeleton
microfilaments, intermediate, microtubules
made of actin (protein)
similar to a skelleton (smallest of cytoskeleton)
made of tubulin (protein) and play a structural role in the cell. Determine shape of cell (largest of cytoskeleton)
how many centrioles does an animal have that helps them divide
Plant cells do not have
short (lungs are lined with this and it sweeps away foreign material that has been inhaled
long - for cell movement in most cells (sperm - single celled)
chanel between cell walls that connects cytoplasm so movement is allowed
what cells secrete, a sticky glue like material
leak proof barrier junction
extensions, joins cells - do allow for some material to pass
junctions that allow small molecules to pass
prokaryotes are cells that lack a
eukaryotes are cells that contain a
eukaryotes are cells that contain
other membrane organelles
the area where the cells circular DNA molecule congregates
protects the cell and prevents it from bursting if it absobes too much water, gives the cell its shape
enables cells to move, rotates like a propeller moving the cell forward or backward
which is larger a prokaryotic or eukaryotic
"little organs" compartments that carry out specialized functions
what molecules make up the cell membrane
which end of the phospholipid is non polar
which end of the phospholipid is polar
a chemical structure that gives phospholipids unusual properties in water
the phospholipid bilayer allows the cell membrane to be _____permeable
assist hydrophilic molecules acroos the membrane
biological catalyst help to organize reactions on the plasma membrane
carbohydrate tails that attach to phospholipids or proteins and serve as ID tags. They sor cells in an embryo. Carbohydrate tails also help to know which cells are invaders of the body
enable cells to stick to one another
used for signal transduction. They signal another protein to cause a reaction
Cells must have large ______ area compared to their volume to accommodate exchanges of nutrients, gases, and wastes. This is the reason that nearly all cells are _____ in size.
Eukaryotes are cells that contain a ______ and ___________.
other membranous organelles
Three ways Archean cells resemble bacterial cells?
-they are smaller than most eukaryotic cells
-they lack a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles
-most have cell walls, and flagella are also common
Why do Archaea have their own domain?
because they build their cells out of biochemical that are different from those in either bacteria or eukaryotes
Describe the chemical structure of a phospholipid.
glycerol bonds to two fatty acids; the third carbon binds to a phosphate group attached to additional atoms
Because many proteins and phospholipids are free to move laterally within the bilayer of a plasma membrane it has been called a ____.
What are the five functions of membrane proteins?
transport proteins, enzymes, recognition proteins, adhesion proteins, receptor proteins
what are the six organelles involved in the endomembrane system?
nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and cell membrane
What theory describes the orgin of eukaryotic cells?
what does the endosymbiosis theory state?
that some ancient organisms (or organisms) engulfed bacterial cells. rather than digesting them as food, the host cells kept them on as partners: mitochondria and chloroplasts
Both _____ and ________ contain their own DNA.
mitochondria and chloroplasts
What is the primary molecule used by plants to make the cell wall?