Test 2

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ambersmith14322
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133310
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Test 2
Updated:
2012-02-13 23:45:35
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Cells
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Cells
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  1. What does the Cell Theory state:
    That all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells
  2. Three main components of the cell theory
    • all organisms are made of one or more cells
    • the cell is the fundamental unit of life
    • all cells come from preexisting cells
  3. What six features do all cells have in common
    DNA, RNA, Ribosomes, Proteins, Cytoplasm, Lipid rich cell membrane
  4. What causes the cells size to vary greatly?
    The cells function
  5. What are the most abundant and diverse organisms on earth?
    Bacteria
  6. What is also known as an extremophiles
    Archaea
  7. What cells primary complement of DNA is enclosed within a nucleus?
    Eukaryotic
  8. Three characteristics of a eukaryotic cell that a prokaryotic cell does not normally have:
    Centriole, Lysosome, and Flagellum
  9. Three characteristics of a prokaryotic cell that a eukaryotic cell does not have:
    Central vacuole, Cell Wall, and Chloroplast
  10. 5 characteristics of prokaryotic cells:
    Single celled, smaller, structurally simple, no membrane-bound structures (no organelles), and DNA housed in nucleoid region
  11. Which cell is single-celled?
    prokaryote
  12. Which cell is smaller?
    prokaryote
  13. Which cell has no membrane-bound structures?
    prokaryote
  14. Which cell is structurally simple?
    prokaryote
  15. Which cell has DNA housed in nucleoid region?
    prokaryote
  16. Which cell is multicellular?
    eukaryote
  17. Which cell is larger?
    eukaryote
  18. Which cell is structurally complex?
    eukaryote
  19. Which cell has membrane bound organelles?
    eukaryote
  20. Which cell has DNA housed in membrane-bound nucleus?
    eukaryote
  21. 5 characteristics of a eukartoic cell:
    multicellular, larger, structurally complex, membrane bound organelles, DNA housed in membrane hound nucleus
  22. What regulates the chemicals into and out of the cell?
    Plasma membrane
  23. What is the area between the nucleus and plasma membrane of both plant and animal cells called?
    cytoplasm
  24. The fluid within the cytoplasm
    cytosole
  25. Not bound by a membrane
    ribosomes
  26. What do the hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail form?
    phospholipid bilayer
  27. What are actual cells that connect one cell to another?
    cell junctions
  28. What is the job of a cell?
    To make proteins
  29. What allows passage beteen the nucleus and cytoplasm
    pores
  30. What is referred to as a fluid mosaic?
    plasma membrane
  31. The genetic control center of a cell:
    nucleus
  32. Surrounds the nucleus and is noted as a double membrane
    nuclear envelope
  33. Dumps thread like genetic material:
    chromatin
  34. Present in the nucleus of cells that are not currently dividing
    chromatin
  35. Bunch up together and condense into chromosomes
    chromatin
  36. How many chromosomes do humans have?
    46
  37. The number of these does not relate to how inteligent or complex a species is:
    chromosomes
  38. What is located in strands of chromatin found in both the nucleus and nucleolus
    DNA
  39. The site where component parts of ribosomes are made
    nucleolus
  40. Makes protein and also known as "the work benches"
    ribosomes
  41. Where are most proteins made
    rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
  42. Name the component parts of the Endomembrane System:
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - Smooth ER (SER) & Rough ER (RER),
    • Golgi apparatus,
    • Lysosomes
    • Vacuoles
  43. How does the golgi apparatus receive products and send them back out?
    transport vesicles
  44. What makes lipids?
    Smooth ER (SER)
  45. What organelle finishes, sorts, and ships cell products
    Golgi apparatus
  46. Used to break down the contents of other vesicles, damaged organelles, or bacteria
    Lysosomes
  47. Can remove dead organelles
    Lysosome
  48. Lysosmes are not located in which cell?
    plant cells
  49. Which cells do not have large central vacuoles?
    animal cells
  50. Where is the pigment contained that makes flowers beautiful colors such as red and blue?
    central vacuole
  51. What is contained in the central vacuole and makes flower beautiful colors such as red and blue?
    Pigments
  52. Large membrane bound sac
    vacuole
  53. Can be used for storage of many different materials?
    vacuole
  54. Cells genetic information
    DNA
  55. Participates in the production of proteins
    RNA
  56. Structures that manufacture proteins
    Ribosomes
  57. Carry out all of the cells work, from orchestrating reproduction to processing energy to regulating what enters and leaves the cell
    Proteins
  58. Occupies much of the volume of the cell
    Cytoplasm
  59. Lipid-rich boundary between the cell and its environment
    Cell-membrane (Plasma membrane)
  60. What organelles are considered the power stations
    chloroplasts and mitochondria
  61. what performs photosynthesis and has a double membrane
    chloroplasts
  62. a stack of thylakoide
    granum
  63. individual disk that can be stacked to make granum
    thylakoide
  64. thick fluid within the chloroplast
    stroma
  65. where is light from sun traped and converted into energy
    chloroplasts
  66. taking the food you eat and turning it into a chemical form that the cell can use
    food ---> fuel
    mitochondria/converter
    ATP
  67. two organelles that have a double membrane
    chloroplasts and mitochondria
  68. inner folds that increase surface area
    christae
  69. are both in plant and animal cells
    mitochondria
  70. network of fibers/ cells internal structure
    cytoskeleton
  71. provides support to the cell
    cytoskeleton
  72. gives mechanical support and helps maintain the shape of the cell
    cytoskeleton
  73. three componenents of the cytoskeleton
    microfilaments, intermediate, microtubules
  74. made of actin (protein)
    microfilaments
  75. similar to a skelleton (smallest of cytoskeleton)
    intermediate
  76. made of tubulin (protein) and play a structural role in the cell. Determine shape of cell (largest of cytoskeleton)
    microtubules
  77. how many centrioles does an animal have that helps them divide
    2
  78. Plant cells do not have
    centriolles
  79. short (lungs are lined with this and it sweeps away foreign material that has been inhaled
    cilia
  80. long - for cell movement in most cells (sperm - single celled)
    flagella
  81. chanel between cell walls that connects cytoplasm so movement is allowed
    plasmodesmata
  82. what cells secrete, a sticky glue like material
    extracellular matrix
  83. leak proof barrier junction
    tight junction
  84. extensions, joins cells - do allow for some material to pass
    anchoring junctions
  85. junctions that allow small molecules to pass
    gap junctions
  86. prokaryotes are cells that lack a
    nucleus
  87. eukaryotes are cells that contain a
    nucleus
  88. eukaryotes are cells that contain
    other membrane organelles
  89. the area where the cells circular DNA molecule congregates
    nucleoid
  90. protects the cell and prevents it from bursting if it absobes too much water, gives the cell its shape
    cell wall
  91. enables cells to move, rotates like a propeller moving the cell forward or backward
    flagella
  92. which is larger a prokaryotic or eukaryotic
    eukaryotic
  93. "little organs" compartments that carry out specialized functions
    organelle
  94. what molecules make up the cell membrane
    mainly phospholipids
  95. which end of the phospholipid is non polar
    hydrophobic tail
  96. which end of the phospholipid is polar
    hydrophilic head
  97. a chemical structure that gives phospholipids unusual properties in water
    phospholipid bilayer
  98. the phospholipid bilayer allows the cell membrane to be _____permeable
    selectively
  99. assist hydrophilic molecules acroos the membrane
    transport proteins
  100. biological catalyst help to organize reactions on the plasma membrane
    enzymes
  101. carbohydrate tails that attach to phospholipids or proteins and serve as ID tags. They sor cells in an embryo. Carbohydrate tails also help to know which cells are invaders of the body
    recognition proteins
  102. enable cells to stick to one another
    adhesion proteins
  103. used for signal transduction. They signal another protein to cause a reaction
    receptor proteins
  104. Cells must have large ______ area compared to their volume to accommodate exchanges of nutrients, gases, and wastes. This is the reason that nearly all cells are _____ in size.
    • Surface
    • Small
  105. Eukaryotes are cells that contain a ______ and ___________.
    • Nucleus
    • other membranous organelles
  106. Three ways Archean cells resemble bacterial cells?
    • -they are smaller than most eukaryotic cells
    • -they lack a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles
    • -most have cell walls, and flagella are also common
  107. Why do Archaea have their own domain?
    because they build their cells out of biochemical that are different from those in either bacteria or eukaryotes
  108. Describe the chemical structure of a phospholipid.
    glycerol bonds to two fatty acids; the third carbon binds to a phosphate group attached to additional atoms
  109. Because many proteins and phospholipids are free to move laterally within the bilayer of a plasma membrane it has been called a ____.
    fluid mosaic
  110. What are the five functions of membrane proteins?
    transport proteins, enzymes, recognition proteins, adhesion proteins, receptor proteins
  111. what are the six organelles involved in the endomembrane system?
    nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and cell membrane
  112. What theory describes the orgin of eukaryotic cells?
    endosymbiosis theory
  113. what does the endosymbiosis theory state?
    that some ancient organisms (or organisms) engulfed bacterial cells. rather than digesting them as food, the host cells kept them on as partners: mitochondria and chloroplasts
  114. Both _____ and ________ contain their own DNA.
    mitochondria and chloroplasts
  115. What is the primary molecule used by plants to make the cell wall?
    cellulose

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