Card Set Information
The pathophysiology of the endocrine system through jeopardy questions
What is a description of down regulation?
High concentrations of a hormone result in a decreased number of receptor sites
What is the pathophysiology of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis?
This disorder occurs when abnormal IgG destroys the thyroid gland.
What is Addison disease (adrenocortical insufficiency)?
A disorder due to destruction of adrenal cortex causing lack of cortisol.
What are the serum glucose values for prediabetes and diabetes, respectively?
Fasting blood glucose values of 100-125 mg/dl and 126 mg/dl
What is the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus?
An autoimmune disorder in which there is cell-mediated destruction of beta cells of pancreas
What is secondary Cushings due to ectopic cortisol?
This disorder produces hypercortisolism with high serum ACTH and high cortisol, but no tumors in the anterior pituitary or adrenal gland
What is cretinism? (hypothyroidism in children)?
The child with this disorder has dull facial appearance, thick protruberant tongue, poor muscle tone, bradycardia, umbilical hernia, and mental retardation
What is an example of a negative feedback loop?
A low calcium level stimulates the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) that results in a higher calcium level which turns off the PTH
What causes growth of bony tissue, cartilage and soft tissue, enlarged tongue and glucose intolerance in adults?
A condition known as acromegaly due to excess growth hormone in adults
What are clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism?
The client has lethargy, weakness, cold intolerance, weight gain and constipation
What are clinical manifestations of Cushing syndrome?
The client had ‘moon’ face, truncal obesity, cervical fat pad, ↓muscle mass in extremities, thin skin, and osteoporosis
How is polyuria caused in diabetes?
Increased in serum glucose increases osmotic pressure, pulls water into vascular system
What is Hyperosmolar, Hyperglycemic, Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS)?
The client with diabetes has polyuria and polydispia without metabolic acidosis.
How is hypertension caused by Cushing syndrome?
Elevated cortisol and hyperglycemia increase osmotic pressure which increases volume
What is Graves disease (hyperthyroidism)?
In this disorder, immunoglobulins stimulate the receptors to produce excessive hormone
What is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus?
A disorder that occurs when renal tubules do not respond to ADH
What is syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone(S↑ADH)?
Excess antidiuretic hormone due to ectopic sources
What are clinical manifestations of thyroid storm?
Elevated temperature, extreme tachycardia, cardiac dysrhythmias, congestive heart failure, restlessness, agitation & psychosis
What are the effects of taking glucocorticoids (e.g., prednisone) as an anti-inflammatory medication
The client has cushing-like clinical manifestations with a normal pituitary and adrenal glands
What are the effects of autonomic dysfunction that occur in clients with diabetes mellitus?
The client with diabetes has poor stomach emptying. incontinence, postural hypotension, and impotence
What are cerebrovascular accident accident (CVA), coronary artery disease (CAD) & myocardial infarction (MI), and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) ?
Chronic complications due to macrovascular disease (atherosclerosis)
What is hyperaldosteronism?
An adrenal adenoma causes hypernatremia and hypokalemia.
What is the action of parathyroid hormone?
It pulls calcium from bones and increases reabsorption from the kidneys and gut.
What is syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone?(S↑ADH)
A disorder that retains water causing low sodium, hematocrit and BUN and high urine specific gravity
What is sodium?
The electrolyte that is high in diabetes insipidus due to water deficit and low in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone due to water excess
What are clinical manifestations of hyperparathyroidism?
The client has kidney stones, osteoporosis, anorexia, constipation bradycardia, and heart block
What is pheochromocytoma?(Elevated norepinephrine and epinephrine)
The client has persistent and often severe hypertension; Classic triad: headache, tachycardia, diaphoresis
What are retinopathy and nephropahy?
Chronic complications due to the microvascular disease(Thickening of capillary basement membrane)