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  1. Mental Maps
    Used whever individuals think about a place or how to get to a place. They are highly personal and usually contain both objective knowledge and subjective projections.
  2. Irredentism
    Italian for Unredeemed. An attempt by existing states to annex territories of another state.
  3. Biosphere
    • Consists of three interrelated parts:
    • The Troposphere, which is the lowest layer of earth's atmosphere.
    • The Hydrosphere, which includes all of the waters, both on the surface and subsurface.
    • The Lithosphere, contains all of the soils that support plant life, minerals, and fossil fuels and oresl.
  4. Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Prompted by Rosa Parks on December 1, 1955. Initiated the Civil Rights Movement.
  5. Bobby Seale
    Founder and organizer of the Black Panter movement during the 1960's.
  6. Non-Renewable Resources
    Resources which are in fixed amounts and are usually found in the ground. Not living things and don't regrow.
  7. Push Factor
    When migrants feel they are being pushed out of an area because they percieve it to be a place that is detrimental for them to remain.
  8. Pull Factor
    A factor that attracts migrants to come to a new area.
  9. Globalization
    Refers to the increaing interconnection of more and more people and places across the world through social, cultural, political, economic, and enviornmental processes. It is not a new process, as long distance trade and exchange has been taking place for thousands of years.
  10. How can a country prevent its exchange rate from rising?
    If a country sells its own currecy, this would increas supply and keep the price down.
  11. Three Basic Questionf of Economics
    • What to Produce
    • For Whome to Produce
    • How to Produce
  12. Opportunity Cost
    Cost in lost opportuntiy because you have engaged in a different activity with your time. (If I don't work over the summer, my opportunity cost is the amount of money I could have made if I did work.)
  13. The essence of a market economy is...
    freedom and freedom of choice.
  14. Market Forces
    In a market economy, in which everyone is free to make choices about what they purchase, market fources dictate the allocation of resources.
  15. Free Goods
    Goods that are not scarce. They are not worthless and people are able to use them.
  16. Scarcity is maintained by...
    • Demand
    • Scarcity is a bi-product of demand - the more demand the less there is of a resource.
  17. What are considered the factors of production?
    Land, labor, capital, and entreprenurship.
  18. Planned Economy
    Government intervention such as establishing quotas, collecting license fees, and providing subsidies. Taxes are not normally considered part of government intervention.
  19. GNP
    Gross National Product. Defined as the total goods and services produced by the nation in a given year.
  20. Monopolistic Competition
    A market structure in which several or many sellers each produce similar, but slightly differentiated products. Each producer can set its price and quantity without affectin the marketplace as a whole. (film industry)
  21. Article 1 of the Constitution creates
    A bicarmeral legislature.
  22. Thomas Hobbes viewed the social contract as a means of...
    Maintaining order to escape the violent chaos of nature. Hobbes believed that if society were left to its natural state, people would act violently because they would be inclided to try to gain power over others.
  23. How are local governments chartered?
    A local government is chartered according to its state's constitution.
  24. Realism
    Realism is an international theory that holds that nation states are the basic governmental unit and there is no authority above individual nations.
  25. Another term for autocracy
    Despotism, or rule by a despot
Card Set
Studying for the Social Studies (0081) PRAXIS II Test
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