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2012-02-10 14:27:46
American History

Exam #1 Study guide
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  1. Columbian Exchange
    The exchange of goods and people between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres that began in 1492 transformed populations throughout the world. For American Indians, the consequences included demographic disaster. For people in other parts of the world, however, the Columbian Exchange contributed to population growth. The crops that Europeans brought back across the Atlantic yielded more calories per hectare than did traditional Old World crops. For example, wheat, a plant known in the Eastern Hemisphere before 1492, averages 4.2 million calories per hectare of land. The potatoes introduced into Europe as part of the Columbian Exchange provided 7.5 million calories per hectare. This increase in available calories allowed for population growth, first in Europe, then in Africa and Asia.
  2. Pueblo Bonita
    In the arid northeastern area of present-day Arizona, the Hopi and Zuni and their ancestors engaged in settled village life for over 3,000 years. During the peak of the region’s culture, between the years 900 and 1200, these peoples built great planned towns with large multiple-family dwellings in local canyons, constructed dams and canals to gather and distribute water, and conducted trade with groups as far away as central Mexico and the Mississippi valley. Pueblo Bonita was one largest of the Pueblo Indian structures, in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, stood five stories high and had over 600 rooms. Not until the 1880s was a dwelling of comparable size constructed in the United States. After the decline of these communities, probably because of drought, survivors moved to the south and east, where they established villages and perfected the techniques of desert farming, complete with irrigation systems to provide water for crops of corn, beans, and cotton. These were the people Spanish explorers called the Pueblo Indians (because they lived in small villages, or pueblos) when the Spanish first encountered them in the 16th century. P.11
  3. Matrilineal
    Centered on clans or kinship groups in which children became members of the mother’s family, not the father’s. Most native American societies were matrilineal; women often owned dwellings and tools; because men were frequently away hunting, women took responsibility for household and agricultural duties; women also were free to engage in premarital sex could choose to divorce their husbands. P.15-16
  4. Native American Religion
    No sharp distinction between the natural and the supernatural, or secular and religious activities. Most Native Americans held a belief in a single creator. P.12-13
  5. Johannes Gutenberg / Moveable Type Printing Press-
    The technique of printing with movable type, invented in the 1430s by the German craftsman Johannes Gutenberg, had made possible the rapid spread of information in Europe, at least among the educated minority. P.24
  6. Bartolomé de Las Casas-
    Dominican priest who published an account of the decimation of the Indian population with the compelling title A Very Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies. Las Casas’s father had sailed on Columbus’s second voyage, and he himself had participated in the plunder of Peru and the exploitation of Indian labor on Hispaniola and Cuba. But in 1514 Las Casas freed his own Indian slaves and began to preach against the injustices of Spanish rule. Las Casas’s writing denounced Spain for causing the death of millions of innocent people. “It has been Spain’s practice, “ in order to make the inhabitants “tremble with fear.” He narrated in shocking detail the “strange cruelties” carried out by “the Christians,” including the burning alive of men, women, and children and the imposition of forced labor. The Indians, he wrote had been “totally deprived of their freedom and were put in the harshest, fiercest, most terrible servitude and captivity.” Long before the idea was common, Las Casas insisted that Indians were rational beings, not barbarians, and that Spain had no grounds on which to deprive them of their lands and liberty. “The entire human race is one,” he proclaimed, and while he continued to believe that Spain had a right to rule in America, largely on religious grounds, he called for Indians to enjoy “all guarantees of liberty and justice” from the moment they became subjects of Spain. “Nothing certainly more precious in human affairs, nothing more esteemed,” he wrote, “than freedom.” Yet Las Casas also suggested that importing slaves from Africa would help to protect the Indians from exploitation. P.32
  7. Black Legend-
    Idea that the Spanish New World empire was more oppressive toward the Indians than other European empires; was used as a justification for English imperial expansion
  8. Coverture-
    Principle in English and American law that a married woman lost her legal identity, which became “covered” by that of her husband, who therefore controlled her person and the family’s economic resource. P.18
  9. St. Augustine-
    Florida was the first region to be colonized within the present-day United States. Spain hoped to establish a military base there to combat pirates who threatened the treasure fleet that each year sailed from Havana for Europe loaded with gold and silver from Mexico and Peru. Spain also wanted to forestall French incursions in the area. In 1565, Philip II of Spain authorized the nobleman Pedro Menendez destroyed a small outpost at Fort Caroline, which a group of Huguenots (French Protestants) had established in 1562 near present-day Jacksonville. Mendez and his men massacred the 500 colonists and went on to establish Spanish first on St. Simons Island, Georgia, and at St. Augustine, Florida. The latter remains the oldest site in the United States continuously inhabited by European settlers and their descendants.
  10. Santa Fe-
    established in 1610 Spain established the capital of New Mexico at Santa Fe, the first permanent settlement in the Southwest.
  11. Pueblo Revolt-
    By the 1660s the colony of New Mexico was in crisis. The Pueblo Indians had long traded their surplus crops with the Navajos and Apaches, but after the arrival of the Spaniards that trade dried up, prompting the former trading partners to raid the Pueblos. Conflicts increased as a drought gripped the region and famine took hold of the land. Priests reported that hundreds of Indians died of starvation. Conditions were so bad that the Spanish were reduced to boiling cowhides and eating them. Seeking relief, the Pueblos turned to their traditional gods, a move that prompted authorities to respond with violence. In 1675 the governor of New Mexico had three Pueblo religious leaders hanged, and another forty-three flogged. Rather than intimidate the Pueblos, incidents such as these infuriated them, fueling the anger that would erupt in rebellion five years later.
  12. Christian liberty-
    freedom was not a single idea but a collection of distinct rights and privileges, many enjoyed only by a small portion of the population. One conception common throughout Europe understood freedom less as a political or social status than as a moral or spiritual condition. Freedom meant abandoning the life of sin to embrace the teachings of Christ. “Where the Spirit of the Lord is,” declares the New Testament, “there is liberty.” In this definition, servitude and freedom were mutually reinforcing not contradictory states, since those who accepted the teachings of Christ simultaneously became “free from sin” and “servants to God.” “Christian liberty” had no connection to later ideas of religious toleration, a notion that scarcely existed anywhere on the eve of colonization. Every nation in Europe had an established church that decreed what forms of religious worship and belief were acceptable. Dissenters faced persecution by the state as well as condemnation by church authorities. Religious uniformity was thought to be essential to public order; the modern idea that a person’s religious beliefs and practices are a matter of private choice, not legal obligation, was almost unknown. The religious wars that racked Europe in the16th and 17th centuries centered on which religion would predominate in a kingdom or region, not the right of individuals to choose which church in which to worship. “Moral” liberty= Christian liberty. True freedom depended upon subjection to authority.
  13. Dutch Freedom-
    freedom of the press and broad religious tolerance were already a part of Dutch culture in the 1600s.
  14. Fur-
    The Dutch came to trade in North America, not conquer it. They were mindful of the Black Legend of Spanish cruelty and determined to be more humane. Sought to liberate New World from the tyranny of Spain and the Catholic Church. Employees for fur trade was more important than converting the Natives to Catholicism. Northern traders need Indians as allies and hunters. The European traders would exchange precious metals and trinkets for furs.
  15. Northwest Passage-
    a sea route directly to the Pacific Ocean.
  16. Similarities between Spanish / French / Dutch colonization-
    All brought Christianity; new technology and learning, new legal systems family relationships, and new forms of economic enterprise and wealth creation; brought disease, and some form of savage warfare.
  17. Henry VIII-
    launched Protestant Reformation in Englad after the Pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He made himself the head of the Church of England (the Anglican Church), effectively and permanently severing England’s ties to the Catholic Church.
  18. Roanoke Colony-
    Sir Walter Raleigh was granted charter by English government, 2 expeditions to Roanoke (1585-1586). The “Lost Colony” of Roanoke was deserted when leader John White returned in 1590. All that was left was rusty armor, moldy books, and the world CROATOAN carved into a post. Represented major failure for the English.
  19. Enclosure Movement-
    • The English poor had been able to take advantage
    • of “common” or open lands to use for their own, but during the Enclosure
    • Movement of the 1500s-1600s, English landlords began fencing these formerly
    • open plots for their own use, especially in raising sheep for the wool trade,
    • or for their own agricultural uses. As a result, thousands of poor farmers starved. Many ended up in cities, where they could not find work.
    • Those without jobs or otherwise outside the control of their social
    • superiors were deemed to be “vagrants,” or “Masterless Men.” To be unemployed was
    • an offense punishable by branding, whipping, forcing into the army, or hanging. The New World offered an escape from
    • these economic troubles for poor farmers, who could immigrate as indentured
    • servants, and for England, who could use the unemployed as productive
    • citizens, contributing to the nation’s wealth. In fact, about 2/3 of the settlers in the New World’s
    • English colonies came as indentured servants, most of them escaping the
    • downward spiral of the English economy after the enclosure movement took effect.

  20. Masterless Men-
    those without regular jobs or otherwise outside the control of their social superiors; to be unemployed was an offense punishable by branding, whipping, forcing into the army, or hanging.
  21. Virginia Company-
    In April 1606, the British Crown issued a charter permitting private investors to create two companies, the Virginia Company of London and the Virginia Company of Plymouth. Under the terms of the charter, these two groups had the right to establish colonies in North America. The charter was generous, granting the companies the exclusive rights to all the products of the lands they settled (although the Crown claimed one-fifth of any precious metals discovered). Colonists from England would retain all the rights and legal protections of citizenship. Native Americans received no such guarantees, although the companies were required to teach them Christian precepts. Despite the opportunities provided in the charter, the Virginia Company failed to turn a profit, and in 1624 the Crown annulled its charter.
  22. Jamestown-
    in 1607 Jamestown became the 1st permanent English settlement in the area that is now the United States. The settlers were the 1st of tens of thousands of European who crossed the Atlantic during the 17th century to live and work in North America. Settlement and survival were questionable in the colony’s early history because of high death rates, frequent change in leadership, inadequate supplies form England, and placing gold before farming. The number of settlers swelled to 400 in 1609, but after a long winter, only 65 of that number remained. By 1616, about 80% of the immigrants who had arrived in the 1st decade were dead. John Smith’s militaristic “He that will not work, shall not eat” regime held the colony together. House of Burgesses was established in 1619- the first elected assembly in colonial America. The first slaves from Africa arrived in Virginia in 1619.
  23. Uprising of 1622-
    The peace established between the Algonquin Indians and the British settlers at Jamestown did not last long. Powhatan, who had hoped to benefit from trade with the English and yet maintain control over the region, died in 1618. His brother, Openchancanough, regarded the settlers as enemies who must be driven from the land. Part of his enmity stemmed from a 1609 incident in which colonists had invaded his village and publicly humiliated him. However, it was not merely a personal hatred that motivated him to organize an attack on English settlers in 1622. After the adoption of tobacco farming, the English lost interest in trading with Indians and focused on acquiring land. The settlers regarded the Algonquians as an obstacle to their ambitions, and relations between the two groups worsened. The murder of an Indian chieftain, which the Virginia Company chose to ignore, may have been the incident that led Openchancanough to attack the colonists. The assault, which took place on Friday, March 22, 1622, was well-coordinated and so secret that the settlers had no idea that their lives were in jeopardy. On that day the Algonquians attacked farms throughout the region, killing 347 colonists and destroying plantations and an iron works. The victory was incomplete, however, as the colonists fought back over the following months and years. Openchancanough led a similar uprising in 1644. He was captured and carried into Jamestown, where he was shot in the back by one of his guards.
  24. Pocahontas-
    daughter of Powhatan, the leader of 30 tribes near Jamestown, eagerly traded with the English. In an elaborately staged ceremony, Pocahontas “saves” John Smith, who had been captured and threatened with death by her father, Powhatan, which more than likely was designed to illustrate Powhatan’s power of the colonists, Pocahontas became an intermediary between the 2 people. Pocahontas converted to Christianity and married John Rolfe in 1614, in an effort to keep peace- the marriage symbolized Angle-Indian harmony.
  25. John Smith-
    he used used rigorous military discipline held to hold the Jamestown colony together. Smith was a forceful man whose career before coming to America included a period fighting the Turks in Hungary, where he was captured and for a time enslaved. He imposed a regime of forced labor on company lands. “He that will not work, shall not eat,” Smith declared Smith’s autocratic mode of governing alienated many of the colonists. After being injured in an accidental gunpowder explosion in 1609, he was forced to return to England. But his immediate successors continued his iron rule.
  26. Indentured Servants-
    in return for a paid passage to America, English settlers who came to the New World as indentured servants voluntarily surrendered their freedom for a period of time (usually 5-7 years). Nearly 2/3 of English settlers came as indentured servants. Indentured servants could be bought and sold, could not marry without their owner’s permission, were sometimes subject to physical punishment, and had their labor enforced by the courts. Female servants who became pregnant during their term of service were required to work a lengthened term. Given the high death rate, many did not live to finish their terms. Others experienced a “fondness for freedom” and ran away.
  27. Headright System-
    is a legal grant of land to settlers. Headrights are most notable for their role in the expansion of the thirteen British colonies in North America; the Virginia Company of London gave headrights to settlers, and the Plymouth Company followed suit. The headright system was used in several colonies, including Maryland, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina. Most headrights were for 1 to 100 acres (0.40 km2) of land, and were given to anyone willing to cross the Atlantic Ocean and help populate the colonies. Headrights were granted to anyone who would pay for the transportation costs of a laborer or indentured servant. These land grants consisted of 50 acres (200,000 m2) for someone newly moving to the area and 100 acres (0.40 km2) for people previously living in the area. By giving the land to the landowning masters the indentured servants had little or no chance to procure their own land. This kept many colonials poor and led to strife between the poor servants and wealthy landowners.
  28. Tobacco-
    became Virginia’s subsititute for gold. By 1619: Virginia exports large amounts of tobacco. Sons of merchants and English gentlemen took advantage of the headright system and acquired large estates for growing tobacco.
  29. Cecilius Calvert-
    was a single individual that was given a grant of land and governmental authority to establish a proprietary colony in 1632 in present day Maryland. Calvert was granted “full, free, and absolute power,” which included control of trade and the right to initiate all legislation. Calvert imaged Maryland as a feudal domain, with land mapped out in manors. Envisioned Maryland as a refuge for Catholics- wanted Catholics and Protestants to live in harmony. He offered indentured servants 50 acres of land upon freedom.
  30. Puritans-
    Puritanism had its origins in Reformed Protestant theology, especially in the works of the Swiss thinker John Calvin. Calvin's followers believed that because God was omniscient, or all-knowing, then God must now the eternal fate of every soul. Each individual's fate, damnation or salvation, was predetermined, or predestined. Good works or deeds could not gain the sinner entrance into heaven; only the grace of God could do so. Nonetheless, Puritans put great emphasis on moral behavior. They believed that proper actions revealed the depth of an individual's relationship with God. As a consequence, Puritans were often driven people, and their devotion to their belief system often alienated others.
  31. Pilgrims-
    Puritanism had its origins in Reformed Protestant theology, especially in the works of the Swiss thinker John Calvin. Calvin's followers believed that because God was omniscient, or all-knowing, then God must now the eternal fate of every soul. Each individual's fate, damnation or salvation, was predetermined, or predestined. Good works or deeds could not gain the sinner entrance into heaven; only the grace of God could do so. Nonetheless, Puritans put great emphasis on moral behavior. They believed that proper actions revealed the depth of an individual's relationship with God. As a consequence, Puritans were often driven people, and their devotion to their belief system often alienated others.
  32. Mayflower Compact-
    Passengers on the Mayflower included a significant number of non-Puritans. After the ship arrived along the American shore, the Pilgrims worried about their ability to control the non-Puritans. In addition, because the group was settling outside the bounds of their charter, it was technically outside any government authority. To resolve their fears, Pilgrim leaders drafted a compact and required all adult males to sign before going ashore. The document was very brief, containing few references to the structure of government or specifics regarding the laws to be enacted. The Mayflower Compact has been celebrated as an example of democracy, and insofar as it creates a government based on the consent of the governed that is true. However, historians note that only males signed the document, and that the goal of the Pilgrims was not to share power but to prevent non-Puritans from exercising authority or autonomy within the colony.
  33. Plymouth-
    first thanksgiving celebrated in autumn of 1621. The first Puritans to emigrate to America were a group of separatist known as Piligrims. They had already fled to the Netherlands in 1608 believeing that Satan had begun “to sow errors, heresies and discords” in England.A decade later, fearing that their children were being corrupted by being drawn into the surrounding culture, they decided to emigrate to Virginia. The expediction was financed by a group of English investors who hoped to establish a base for profitable trade. In September 1620, the Mayflower, carrying 150 settlers and crew (among them many non-Puritans), embarked from England. Blown off course, they landed not in Virginia but hundreds of miles to the north, on Cape Cod. Here the 102 who survived the journey established the colony of Plymouth. Before landing the Pilgrims leaders drew up the Mayflower Compact, in which the adult men going ashore agreed to obey “just and equal laws” enacted by representatives of their own choosing. This was the first written frame of government in what is now the United States. The Pilgrims arrived in an area whose native population had recently been decimated by smallpox. They established Plymouth on the site of an abandoned Indian village whose fields had been cleared before the epidemic and were ready for cultivation. P.70
  34. Puritans and Social Order-
    • Puritans had a very strict, hierarchical social order as reflected in their Great Chain of Being. In this system, all authority was given to God, with man in subservience. Women, further down in the hierarchy, were also subservient to God, and were additionally required to be submissive to men’s authority. This system directed the ways in which Puritans organized the order of their society: every member of society had a specific place and each depended on the other to keep their place. Social disorder was a threat to the community and was punishable by banishment. (Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson, for example)
  35. Pequot War
    • 1637: European fur trader is killed by the Pequots, who controlled southern New England’s fur trade among Native Americans. Soldiers from Connecticut and Massachusetts, with Indian allies (Narragansetts) surround and burn the Pequot village at Mystic River (CT). More than 500 men, women, children die. Others were sold into Caribbean slavery. Significant demonstration that the English had a power that could not be resisted by Native populations. Opened the Connecticut River valley to rapid white settlement.
  36. Roger Williams-
    Dissenter. Argues for separation of church and state. Believed in “soul liberty” –that genuine religious faith is voluntary, and that citizens who abide by the law should practice whatever form of religion they choose. Denied the Puritan idea that they were a people on a divine mission to spread the truth faith. “Forced worship stinks in God’s nostrils.” Banished from Massachusetts in 1636. Founds the colony of Rhode Island, beacon of religious freedom. Rhode Island will have: no established church, no requirements that settlers attend church, no religious qualifications for voting until the 18th century, and town meetings held more frequently; governor elected every year. Connecticut as spin-off from Puritan Massachusetts.
  37. Anne Hutchinson-
    Midwife, educated. Believes indiviuals have direct links to God, regardless of education or minister’s license. Thought female Ministers were a thraeat to society. She hold private meetings in her home, attended by both men and women. Put on trial for sedition in 1637. Judge to Anne: “You have s tepped out of your place, you have rather been a husband than a wife and a preacher than a hearer; and a magistrate than a subject.”
  38. Navigation Acts-
    • most colonial products had
    • to be transported in English ships and sold in English ports, though they could
    • then be re-exported to foreign markets. England
    • became more involved in the colonies as Atlantic trade became more profitable.
  39. Mercantilism-
    theory that the government should regulate economic activity so as to promote national power. The export of goods should exceed the import of goods. The colonies were a rich source of marketable raw materials.
  40. Quakers / Pennsylvania-
    Religious group in England and America whose members believed all persons possessed the “inner light” or spirit of God; they were early proponents of abolition of slavery and equal rights for women. Pennsylvania was the last 17th century colony to be established and was given to proprietor William Penn. A Quaker, Penn envisioned a colony of peaceful harmony between colonists and Indians and a haven for spiritual freedom. Quakers believed that liberty was a universal entitlement: Liberty extended to women, blacks, and Indians. Religious freedom was a fundamental principle. Quakers upheld a strict moral code…Penn established a government that made a majority of the male population eligible to vote. He owned all of the colony’s land and sold it to settlers at low prices rather than granting it outright. Even if he did not, Pennsylvania prospered under Penn’s policies. Religious freedom was Penn’s most fundamental principle. He determined to govern Pennsylvania on the basis of the equality of all persons, including women, blacks, and Native Americans, before God and the primacy of individual conscience. Quakers were the first group among whites to repudiate slavery.
  41. Bacon’s Rebellion-
    In 1675, a disagreement over the ownership of some hogs led to a bloody clash between Virginia settlers and American Indians. Colonists murdered several Indians, including fourteen Susquehannahs who had not even been involved in the original dispute. When the Susquehannahs retaliated, the settlers demanded assistance from the government, calling upon Governor William Berkeley to allow them to destroy the Indian communities in the region. Berkeley initially agreed, but then opted for a defensive strategy, ordering the establishment of a string of forts. Settlers on the frontier viewed this response as ineffective, condemning it as a means for the governor to enrich his cronies who would build the forts. Nathaniel Bacon became involved in the debate, leading colonists in raids against Indians, many of whom were friendly with the Virginians. Berkeley condemned Bacon for his actions, a move that led to the full-scale rebellion against the government that bears Bacon's name.
  42. Dominion of New England-
    Consolidation into a single colony of the New England colonies- and later New England colonies-and later New York and New Jersey- By royal governor Edmund Andros in 1686; Andros: Appointed local officials, did not elect them, Imposed taxes without approval of elected reps, Declared all prior land grants void unless approved by him, Enforced religious toleration of Protestants: dominion reverted to individual colonial governments three years later.
  43. Witchcraft-
    Witches were individuals, usually women, who were accused of having entered into a pact with the devil in order to obtain supernatural powers, which were then used to harm others. Witchcraft was punishable by execution. Most accused women hanged in 17th century New England: were beyond childbearing age, were outspoken, were economically independent or estranged from their husbands, and in some other way violating traditional gender norms.
  44. Clergyman Increase Mather-
    Warns that the Puritans had fallen victim to a game of “blind man’s buffet” set up by Satan, and were “hotly and madly mauling one another in the dark.” Late 1692-Early 1693: Governor of Mass. pardoned all those who were convicted or suspected of practicing witchcraft. The trials in Salem encouraged prominent colonists to find scientific explanations for natural events rather than attributing them to magic.
  45. Triangular Trades-
    The first mass consumer goods in international trade were produced by slaves—sugar, rice, coffee, tobacco. Demand increased need for workers. In the 18th century, triangular trading routes carried British manufactured goods to Africa and the colonies, colonial products to Europe, and slaves from Africa to the New World. In areas where slavery was not as useful (New England, for example), merchants participated in the slave trade with the Caribbean.
  46. The Middle Passage-
    • The Middle Passage received its name because it was the second leg of a triangular trade route between the Americas and the continents of the Eastern Hemisphere. Merchants leaving England headed south, their ships' holds filled with manufactured goods. They sailed down the West African coast, exchanging goods with local traders in exchange for slaves. Their holds now filled with human cargo, the ships headed west to the Americas, where slaves were sold for agricultural goods such as sugar and tobacco. The ships then headed north and east to return to England. During the seventeenth century, British ships took some seven weeks to complete the Middle Passage. Completing the entire triangle could take over a year.
    • The middle passage was the second, or middle, leg in the triangular trading routes linking Europe, Africa, and America. The first leg of the triangular trade route carried a cargo that often included iron, cloth, brandy, firearms, and gunpowder. Upon landing on Africa’s coast, the cargo was exchanged for Africans. Loaded with its human cargo, the ship set sail for the Americas, where the slaves were exchanged for sugar, tobacco, or some other product. The final leg brought the ship back to Europe. The duration of the transatlantic voyage to the Americas varied widely, from one to six months depending on weather conditions. Typical slave ships contained several hundred slaves with about thirty crew members. The more slaves a ship carried, the more profitable the trip. Conditions were cramped, and slaves were chained together. Food was scarce, disease was rampant, and mistreatment/abuse was common. Many died before ever reaching their destination of the Caribbean or the Americas.
  47. Rice-
    Africans taught English settlers how to cultivate rice, which became the basis for South Carolina’s system of slavery. Rice planters were the wealthiest slave owning class on the North American mainland. Rice required large-scale cultivation, so SC planters owned much more land than tobacco planters in VA. Overseers were left in charge of slaves as malarial conditions drove planters to cities. In South Carolina and Georgia, two very different black societies emerged: Rice plantations remained distinctly African. Urban servants assimilated into Euro-American culture.
  48. John Locke-
    Liberalism was one example of political idea celebrating freedom and was put forth by the leading philosopher John Locke. Lockean ideas included individual rights, the consent of the governed, and the right of rebellion against unjust or oppressive government. There is no divinely sanctioned political order. The aim of government: the good of the people. Political authorities must not abridge mankind’s natural rights. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government (1691) People have natural right to life, liberty, and property. Government exists to protect these rights. If government doesn’t protect rights, people can rebel against the government to change it. Constitutional principles rest not on God's will, but on recognition of individual rights and natural law.
  49. Deists-
    Enlightenment thought applied to religion; emphasized reason, morality, and natural law. Deism stressed morality and rejected the orthodox Christian view of the divinity of Christ. Believed that God essentially withdrew after creating the world, leaving it to function according to scientific laws without divine intervention. Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin and John Adams are usually considered the leading American deists. Deists in the United States never amounted to more than a small percentage of an evangelical population
  50. Great Awakening-
    During the 1720s some churches in the colonies began experiencing religious revivals. These revivals emphasized the sinfulness of human nature and the glory of God's grace. Their appeal lay in their presentation of religion as an emotional experience rather than a rational one. The arrival of the English minister George Whitefield intensified the spirit of revivalism, leading to an event that historians know as the Great Awakening. The Great Awakening led to renewed religious fervor, but it also created divisions within existing churches as members debated new ideas regarding Christianity. Impact of the Great Awakening: Authority of college educated clergy is challenged. Religious pluralism promoted—all (Christian) denominations legitimate. All could participate in the Great Awakening—women, blacks, Native Americans. Methodist, Baptist denominations appeal to African Americans. Splits American Protestantism. Presbyterians and Baptists grow, while Anglican church loses members. Older sects like Quakers, Congregationalists decline.
  51. Albany Plan of Union-
    In June 1754, delegates from Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island met in Albany, New York. The English Board of Trade had been called to the meeting, known as the Albany Congress, in an effort to improve relations between the colonies and Iroquois Indians. Efforts to persuade the Iroquois to join the British in their conflicts with the French were largely unsuccessful; however, Benjamin Franklin and other colonists used the meeting to forward a plan for creating an intercolonial government. They proposed that the British Crown appoint a colonial president. Each colony would send delegates to a Grand Council, with representation based on population. Each delegate would serve a three-year term. The government would have considerable power, including the right to negotiate treaties with or declare war against Indian communities. Realizing the power it would give to colonists, British officials refused to send the Albany Plan to Parliament; colonial governments also rejected it. The response to the Albany Plan illustrates the lack of cooperation between the colonies in the years before the American Revolution.
  52. Terms of Treaty of Paris-
    1763-France cedes major N. American holdings to Britain, Spain. Spain acquires New Orleans, Louisiana Territory west of the Mississippi river. Spain gives Florida to the British, in exchange for return of Philippines. All of North America east of the Mississippi now in British hands.
  53. Pontiac’s Rebellion-
    Neolin, a prophet who urged Native Americans to reject European technology, trade, and clothing, and to drive the British from their territory. Influences Pontiac, leader of the Ottawa Indians. Pontiac and an alliance of 18 tribes wage war; refuse to give up muskets. Captures 9 out of 12 British forts.
  54. Proclamation Line of 1763-
    Britain draws “line” through the Appalachian Mountains. Territory to the west of the line: out of bounds for whites. Britain recognizes Native American land titles west of the line. The colonist could see all the fertile land on the other side of the line, and since the natives did not work the land the colonist did not see the natives as owning it. So the colonist ignored the line.
  55. Actual vs. Virtual Representation-
    Colonists argue for actual representation: Brits can’t raise our taxes because we’re not being represented in Parliament. We have no say! British respond: You are virtually represented. Parliament as a whole will look after your interests.
  56. Sugar Act-
    Rum played an important role in the New England economy. Not only was it a popular drink, it was an important trade good. By 1750, Massachusetts exported some 2 million gallons of rum a year. To produce this valuable commodity, New England distilleries relied upon molasses shipped from the West Indies. The Molasses Act of 1733, which placed a sixpence per gallon tariff on molasses imported from the French Caribbean, was intended to force distillers to purchase their molasses from the British West Indies. However, that law was widely ignored. Most customs collectors charged importers between half a penny and a penny per gallon, and that sum usually went into the tax collector's pocket. The Sugar Act, which lowered the tariff to threepence per gallon, badly frightened American importers because they realized that the British government intended to enforce the new law. French molasses would become so expensive that distillers could not make a profit. British molasses producers could not meet colonial demand for the product; Rhode Islanders distillers declared that if they bought all the British molasses available they would meet only one-fifth their needs. To make matters worse, American ships that transported goods to the French Caribbean would return with empty holds, reducing the profits made from the shipping trade. These economic realities explain in part the strident colonial opposition to the Sugar Act of 1764.
  57. Stamp Act-
    Direct tax on all sorts of printed materials. Wide-reaching and offended virtually every free colonist. Opposition to the Stamp Act was the first great drama of the Revolutionary era and the first major split between the colonists and Great Britain over the meaning of freedom. Requires stamp on printed materials, each stamp represents a tax paid on that material. Helps finance British troops in the colonies. Who does the Stamp Act hurt? Merchants, lawyers, writers.
  58. Declaratory Acts-
    Stamp Act repealed: 1766, BUT… Parliament sneaks through the Declaratory Acts: “the colonies…in America have been, are, and of right ought to be subordinate unto, and dependent upon the imperial crown and Parliament of Great Britain…the King’s majesty, by and with the advice and consent [of Parliament] had, hath, and of right ought to have, full power and authority to make laws…of sufficient force and validity to bind the colonies and people of America, subjects of the Crown of Britain, in all cases whatsoever…"
  59. Daughters of Liberty-
    Women helped the revolutionary cause in a number of ways. In addition to providing homespun, they organized boycotts of British products and of merchants who continued to sell such products. They produced herbal teas to replace the British imports. On rare occasions, women also turned to violence. A group of women at a New Jersey spelling bee seized a male visitor who spoke out against Congress and covered him with molasses. Angry at a Boston merchant who was selling coffee at outrageous prices, a mob of some 100 women marched to his store, demanded his keys, and rolled the hogshead of coffee away in a cart.
  60. Sons of Liberty-
    Secretive network composed of merchants, artisans. Created to oppose Stamp Act. Protest Method: petitions, pamphlets. Crowd action=last resort. Other groups, such as the North Carolina “Regulators,” pattern themselves after the Sons of Liberty.
  61. Tea-
    Tea was a popular drink in British America. In 1764, British importers shipped some half million pounds of tea a year into the colonies; in 1768, they imported nearly 800,000 pounds. In addition, because tea was heavily taxed there was a lively market for the beverage from Dutch traders, who smuggled in nearly a million pounds per year. After 1770, British imports dropped dramatically in some areas. New York and Philadelphia had imported some half-million pounds in 1768; four years later, less than 700 pounds of tea arrived in those two ports. Interestingly, Boston, the site of the Tea Party in 1773, continued to import large quantities of the product.
  62. Boston Massacre-
    The event remembered as the Boston Massacre was more a reflection of the high tensions in Boston than any desire or plan to murder colonists. The British troops stationed in Boston were very unpopular with local residents. Incidents of theft and verbal and physical abuse involving soldiers and colonists were common. The resentments and dislikes turned increasingly violent during the first week of March 1770, and numerous fights broke out. On the night of March 5, a crowd of working-class Bostonians threatened a British private. Eight soldiers came to his aid; the crowd began jeering and throwing ice and snow. Frightened and confused, the British soldiers fired into the crowd, leading to five deaths and several wounded. In the subsequent trials five soldiers were acquitted; two were found guilty of manslaughter.
  63. Intolerable Acts-
    In response to the Boston Tea Party, Parliament closed the port of Boston to all trade until the tea was paid for. Curtailed town meetings, governor authorized to appoint previously elected members of council. Empowered military commanders to lodge soldiers in private homes. Successfully united colonies in opposition to a direct threat of their political freedom..
  64. Continental Congress, 1774-
    Met to organize a resistance against the Intolerable Acts, a Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia. Adopted Continental Association—called for an almost complete halt to trade with Great Britain & West Indies (exception—exports of rice from SC). Attendees included John & Sam Adams, George Washington, Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry. Patrick Henry— “The distinctions between Virginians, Pennsylvanians, New Yorkers, and New Englanders are no more. I am not a Virginian, but an American.”
  65. Thomas Paine-
    publishes Common Sense (1776) to rally people to fight. Accuses king of exploiting colonies; denies legitimacy of monarchy. Radical attack on hereditary privilege. Uses Biblical imagery. Sells 120,000 copies in 3 months. Simple language, read aloud.
  66. Declaration of Independence-
    The Second Continental Congress voted for independence on July 2, 1776, leading John Adams to declare that July 2nd forever after would "be solemnized with Pomp and Parade. with Shews, Games, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one end of the Continent to the other." Adams was wrong. Americans celebrate July 4th, the day that Congress formally approved the revised version of the Declaration of Independence. The festivities began in the 1790s, in part as a result of the conflict between Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans. Federalists ignored the Declaration because of its anti-British tone and because the French, whom the Federalists mistrusted, seemed inspired by the document's support for revolution. It was Jefferson's followers who promoted the July 4th celebrations, drawing attention to their leaders' role in drafting the document.
  67. “Pursuit of Happiness”-
    Preamble, Declaration of Independence, •"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness."
  68. Olaudah Equiano
    • was kidnapped from his African village at the age of eleven, shipped through the arduous "Middle Passage" of the Atlantic Ocean, seasoned in the West Indies and sold to a Virginia planter. He was later bought by a British naval Officer, Captain Pascal, as a present for his cousins in London. After ten years of enslavement throughout the North American continent, where he assisted his merchant slave master and worked as a seaman, Equiano bought his freedom. At the age of forty four he wrote and published his autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Or Gustavus Vassa, The African. Written by Himself, which he registered at Stationer's Hall, London, in 1789. More than two centuries later, this work is recognized not only as one of the first works written in English by a former slave, but perhaps more important as the paradigm of the slave narrative, a new literary genre. Equiano recalls his childhood in Essaka (an Igbo village formerly in northeast Nigeria), where he was adorned in the tradition of the "greatest warriors." He is unique in his recollection of traditional African life before the advent of the European slave trade. Equally significant is Equiano's life on the high seas, which included not only travels throughout the Americas, Turkey and the Mediterranean; but also participation in major naval battles during the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War), as well as in the search for a northwest passage led by the Phipps expedition of 1772-1773. Equiano also records his central role, along with Granville Sharpe, in the British Abolitionist Movement. As a major voice in this movement, Equiano petitioned the Queen of England in 1788. He was appointed to the expedition to settle London's poor Blacks in Sierra Leone, a British colony on the west coast of Africa. Sadly, he did not complete the journey back to his native land.
  69. Mary Wollstonecraft-
    A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792). an important work which, advocating equality of the sexes, and the main doctrines of the later women's movement, made her both famous and infamous in her own time. She ridiculed prevailing notions about women as helpless, charming adornments in the household. Society had bred "gentle domestic brutes." "Educated in slavish dependence and enervated by luxury and sloth," women were too often nauseatingly sentimental and foolish. A confined existence also produced the sheer frustration that transformed these angels of the household into tyrants over child and servant. Education held the key to achieving a sense of self-respect and anew self-image that would enable women to put their capacities to good use.
  70. nonviolent resistance to slavery-