Pathology Ch. 1

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fongpay03
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Pathology Ch. 1
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2012-02-14 18:32:29
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Pathology Ch. 1
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  1. Define pathology
    Study of disease including any abnormal changes seen in the body
  2. Define disease
    The pattern of the body's response to some form of injury
  3. Define etiology
    Study of the causes of the disease process
  4. What is pathogenesis?
    A sequence of events where disease develops according to the mechanism of injury
  5. What are manifestations?
    Observed changed seen in the patient. Signs and/or symptoms
  6. Establishing manifestations are done by:
    • Patient: their history including chief complaint
    • HCP: observation of abnormal changes
  7. What is objective testing?
    Testing that involves analysis of specimens
  8. What are objective procedures?
    A procedure that is more in depth testing
  9. The 4 events that occur in inflammatory response:
    • Alterations in blood flow and vascular permeability
    • Migration of circulating white blood cells to the interstitium of the injured tissue
    • Phagocytosis and enzymatic digestion of dead cells and tisssue elements
    • Repair of injury by regeneration of normal parenchymal cells or proliferation of granulation tissue and eventual scar formation
  10. The 5 clinical signs of acute inflammation:
    • Rubor (redness)
    • Calor (heat)
    • Tumor (swelling)
    • Dolor (pain)
    • Loss of function
  11. What is edema?
    The accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces or body cavities.
  12. What is ischemia?
    Interference of blood supply and/or infarct (localized area of ischemia necrosis or dead tissue)
  13. What is a hemorrhage?
    Rupture of a blood vessel
  14. Hemorrhages may result in:
    Hematoma: trapped blood within tissue
  15. 3 types of hemorrhages:
    • Petechiae: minimal amount of trapped blood
    • Purpura: trapped blood smaller than 1-2 cm
    • Ecchymosis (bruise): trapped blood larger than 1-2 cm
  16. What are 6 alterations of cell growth (listed in lecture notes):
    • Atrophy
    • Hypoplasia/aplasia
    • Hyperplasia
    • Hypertrophy
    • Metaplasia
    • Dysplasia
  17. Define atrophy
    Reduction in size/number of cells with decrease function
  18. Define hypoplasia/aplasia
    Failure of normal development results in abnormal small size
  19. Define hyperplasia
    Increased number of tissue cells
  20. Define hypertrophy
    Increase in overall size of cell
  21. Define metaplasia
    Changes in cellular structure from normal to abnormal
  22. Define dysplasia
    Abnormal development of tissue, can precede a malignant change. Associated with prolonged/chronic inflammation or irritation
  23. Define neoplasia
    • "New growth"
    • Abnormal proliferation of cells that are no longer controlled by the factors that govern the growth of normal cells.
  24. Benign tumors usually consists of:
    • Cells that resemble the tissue of origin
    • Add the suffix -oma to the cell type
  25. Malignant tumors spread by:
    Seeding or lymphatic and/or hematogenous (blood) routes
  26. 8 most common benign tumors:
    • Fibromas: tumors of fibrous tissue
    • Chondroma: cartilaginous tumors
    • Adenoma: epithelial neoplasms that grow in glandlike patterns
    • Cystadenoma: large cystic masses
    • Lipoma: tumors of soft fatty tissue
    • Myoma: tumors of muscle
    • Angioma: tumors composed of blood vessels
    • Papilloma or polyp: An epithelial tumor that grows as a projecting mass on the skin or from an inner mucous membrane
  27. 4 most common malignant tumors (not sure what 4th one is):
    • Adenocarcinoma: malignancies of glandular tissues, like breast, liver, and pancreas, and of the cells lining the gastrointestinal tract
    • Squamous cell carcinoma: tumor cells that resemble stratified squamous epithelium, as in the lung and head and neck regions
    • Sarcoma: highly malignant tumors arising from connective tissues, such as bone, muscle, and cartilage
  28. Define staging
    • Extensiveness of tumor at the primary site
    • Presense or absence of metastases to lymph nodes and distant organs
  29. Define oncology
    Study of neoplasms
  30. Define anaplastic
    Undifferentiated cell growth-without form (bizarre)
  31. Define lymphatic spread
    Major route by which carcinoma metastasizes
  32. Define hematogenous spread
    Malignant tumors that have invaded the circulatory system and travel as neoplastic emboli
  33. Define epidemiology
    Study of determinants of disease events in given populations
  34. Define morbidity
    Rate that an illness or abnormality occurs
  35. Define mortality
    Reflects the number of deaths by disease per population
  36. Define latrogenic
    Disease caused by physician or treatment
  37. Define nosocomial infections
    Infections contracted in the acute care facility
  38. What are the 6 terms for disease
    • Signs
    • Symptoms
    • Latrogenic
    • Nosocomial infections
    • Community-acquired infections
    • Idiopathic
  39. What are 6 body reactions to pathologic conditions?
    • Inflammation
    • Edema
    • Ischemia
    • Hemorrhage
    • Alterations of cell growth
    • Neoplasia
  40. The accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the spaces between cells or in body cavities is termed:
    Edema
  41. An interruption in the blood supply to an organ or body part is referred to as?
    Ischemia
  42. A localized area of ischemic necrosis in an organ or tissue is terned a(n)?
    Infarct
  43. A swelling caused by bleeding into an enclosed area is termed?
    Hematoma
  44. A decrease in function of an organ or tissue because of a reduction in the size or nunber of cells is termed?
    Atrophy
  45. The term for benign epithelial neoplasms that have a glandlike pattern is?
    Adenoma
  46. Statistically, _____ reflects the number of deaths by disease per population.
    Mortality
  47. The rate that an illness or abnormality occurs is called?
    Morbidity

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