Pathology Ch. 1
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Study of disease including any abnormal changes seen in the body
The pattern of the body's response to some form of injury
Study of the causes of the disease process
What is pathogenesis?
A sequence of events where disease develops according to the mechanism of injury
What are manifestations?
Observed changed seen in the patient. Signs and/or symptoms
Establishing manifestations are done by:
- Patient: their history including chief complaint
- HCP: observation of abnormal changes
What is objective testing?
Testing that involves analysis of specimens
What are objective procedures?
A procedure that is more in depth testing
The 4 events that occur in inflammatory response:
- Alterations in blood flow and vascular permeability
- Migration of circulating white blood cells to the interstitium of the injured tissue
- Phagocytosis and enzymatic digestion of dead cells and tisssue elements
- Repair of injury by regeneration of normal parenchymal cells or proliferation of granulation tissue and eventual scar formation
The 5 clinical signs of acute inflammation:
- Rubor (redness)
- Calor (heat)
- Tumor (swelling)
- Dolor (pain)
- Loss of function
What is edema?
The accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces or body cavities.
What is ischemia?
Interference of blood supply and/or infarct (localized area of ischemia necrosis or dead tissue)
What is a hemorrhage?
Rupture of a blood vessel
Hemorrhages may result in:
Hematoma: trapped blood within tissue
3 types of hemorrhages:
- Petechiae: minimal amount of trapped blood
- Purpura: trapped blood smaller than 1-2 cm
- Ecchymosis (bruise): trapped blood larger than 1-2 cm
What are 6 alterations of cell growth (listed in lecture notes):
Reduction in size/number of cells with decrease function
Failure of normal development results in abnormal small size
Increased number of tissue cells
Increase in overall size of cell
Changes in cellular structure from normal to abnormal
Abnormal development of tissue, can precede a malignant change. Associated with prolonged/chronic inflammation or irritation
- "New growth"
- Abnormal proliferation of cells that are no longer controlled by the factors that govern the growth of normal cells.
Benign tumors usually consists of:
- Cells that resemble the tissue of origin
- Add the suffix -oma to the cell type
Malignant tumors spread by:
Seeding or lymphatic and/or hematogenous (blood) routes
8 most common benign tumors:
- Fibromas: tumors of fibrous tissue
- Chondroma: cartilaginous tumors
- Adenoma: epithelial neoplasms that grow in glandlike patterns
- Cystadenoma: large cystic masses
- Lipoma: tumors of soft fatty tissue
- Myoma: tumors of muscle
- Angioma: tumors composed of blood vessels
- Papilloma or polyp: An epithelial tumor that grows as a projecting mass on the skin or from an inner mucous membrane
4 most common malignant tumors (not sure what 4th one is):
- Adenocarcinoma: malignancies of glandular tissues, like breast, liver, and pancreas, and of the cells lining the gastrointestinal tract
- Squamous cell carcinoma: tumor cells that resemble stratified squamous epithelium, as in the lung and head and neck regions
- Sarcoma: highly malignant tumors arising from connective tissues, such as bone, muscle, and cartilage
- Extensiveness of tumor at the primary site
- Presense or absence of metastases to lymph nodes and distant organs
Study of neoplasms
Undifferentiated cell growth-without form (bizarre)
Define lymphatic spread
Major route by which carcinoma metastasizes
Define hematogenous spread
Malignant tumors that have invaded the circulatory system and travel as neoplastic emboli
Study of determinants of disease events in given populations
Rate that an illness or abnormality occurs
Reflects the number of deaths by disease per population
Disease caused by physician or treatment
Define nosocomial infections
Infections contracted in the acute care facility
What are the 6 terms for disease
- Nosocomial infections
- Community-acquired infections
What are 6 body reactions to pathologic conditions?
- Alterations of cell growth
The accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the spaces between cells or in body cavities is termed:
An interruption in the blood supply to an organ or body part is referred to as?
A localized area of ischemic necrosis in an organ or tissue is terned a(n)?
A swelling caused by bleeding into an enclosed area is termed?
A decrease in function of an organ or tissue because of a reduction in the size or nunber of cells is termed?
The term for benign epithelial neoplasms that have a glandlike pattern is?
Statistically, _____ reflects the number of deaths by disease per population.
The rate that an illness or abnormality occurs is called?
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