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biological molecule made of a carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, ratio 1:2:1
the four classes of biological molecules
carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and nucleic acid
composed of carbon and at least one hydrogen atom
- affect chemical behavior of organic compound
- a cluster of atoms bonded to carbon, gives rise to specific properties.
- gives identity, estrogen hormone to women, testerone to men
an OH group from one molecule combines with H atom from another. Water forms as the two molecules bond covalently.
A molecule splits, then an OH grou and H atom from a water molecule become attached to sites exposed by the reaction.
molecule reffers to a building block or a brick
two identical molecules, created a chain like
molecules that catalyze reaction, takes the polymer and breaks them
What is Carbohydrate?
- plentiful and varied
- most abundant biological molecule
- used to build cell parts as energy sources
- Ex: extracellular matrix (green)
- simplest carbohydrate = Monosaccharide= one monomr of sugar
- = O and H jointed to a carbon backbone
- = tasted sweet and dissolve
- = one of the energy sources
- = precursor of many compounds including vitamin C
- short chains of sugar units
- more complicated sugar form
- Oligo: a few
- Energy source and parts of protein
- two sugar units
- Ex: lactose=sugar from milk, sucrose= table sugar (plentiful sugar in nature, consists of glucose and fructose)
- and maltose
- sugar chains that stor energy, that energy is released to cells when the digestive system breaks these sugars down.
- straight or branched chain of sugar monomers (glucose)
- complex carbohydrate, jointed by dehydration synthesis
- make up most of carbohydrate human eats, glycogen, startch, and cellulose, which consists only of glucose
- Polysaccharide made caborhydrate in our eats
- storage form of glucose in plant( wheat, potatoes, rice, corn )
indigestible fiber of plants (aids in human digestion)
storage of glucose in animals (in liver and muscle)