NPB 10

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NPB 10
2012-02-06 21:55:21

Midterm 1 lectures 3-8
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  1. carbohydrate
    biological molecule made of a carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, ratio 1:2:1
  2. the four classes of biological molecules
    carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and nucleic acid
  3. organic compound
    composed of carbon and at least one hydrogen atom
  4. functional group
    • affect chemical behavior of organic compound
    • a cluster of atoms bonded to carbon, gives rise to specific properties.
    • gives identity, estrogen hormone to women, testerone to men
  5. A Condensation
    an OH group from one molecule combines with H atom from another. Water forms as the two molecules bond covalently.
  6. Hydrolysis
    A molecule splits, then an OH grou and H atom from a water molecule become attached to sites exposed by the reaction.
  7. mononmer
    molecule reffers to a building block or a brick
  8. polymers
    two identical molecules, created a chain like
  9. Enzyme
    molecules that catalyze reaction, takes the polymer and breaks them
  10. What is Carbohydrate?
    • plentiful and varied
    • most abundant biological molecule
    • used to build cell parts as energy sources
    • Ex: extracellular matrix (green)
  11. simple sugar
    • simplest carbohydrate = Monosaccharide= one monomr of sugar
    • = O and H jointed to a carbon backbone
    • = tasted sweet and dissolve
    • = one of the energy sources
    • = precursor of many compounds including vitamin C
  12. Oligosachcharides
    • short chains of sugar units
    • more complicated sugar form
    • Oligo: a few
    • Energy source and parts of protein
  13. Disaccharides
    • two sugar units
    • Ex: lactose=sugar from milk, sucrose= table sugar (plentiful sugar in nature, consists of glucose and fructose)
    • and maltose
  14. Polysaccharide
    • sugar chains that stor energy, that energy is released to cells when the digestive system breaks these sugars down.
    • straight or branched chain of sugar monomers (glucose)
    • complex carbohydrate, jointed by dehydration synthesis
    • make up most of carbohydrate human eats, glycogen, startch, and cellulose, which consists only of glucose
  15. Starch
    • Polysaccharide made caborhydrate in our eats
    • storage form of glucose in plant( wheat, potatoes, rice, corn )
  16. cellulose
    indigestible fiber of plants (aids in human digestion)
  17. glycogen
    storage of glucose in animals (in liver and muscle)