NPB 10

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NPB 10
2012-02-06 23:31:02
Lecture chapter 13

Midterm 1 lectures 3
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  1. carbohydrate
    biological molecule made of a carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, ratio 1:2:1
  2. the four classes of biological molecules
    carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and nucleic acid
  3. organic compound
    composed of carbon and at least one hydrogen atom
  4. functional group
    • affect chemical behavior of organic compound
    • a cluster of atoms bonded to carbon, gives rise to specific properties.
    • gives identity, estrogen hormone to women, testerone to men
  5. A Condensation
    an OH group from one molecule combines with H atom from another. Water forms as the two molecules bond covalently.
  6. Hydrolysis
    A molecule splits, then an OH grou and H atom from a water molecule become attached to sites exposed by the reaction.
  7. mononmer
    molecule reffers to a building block or a brick
  8. polymers
    two identical molecules, created a chain like
  9. Enzyme
    molecules that catalyze reaction, takes the polymer and breaks them
  10. What is Carbohydrate?
    • plentiful and varied
    • most abundant biological molecule
    • used to build cell parts as energy sources
    • Ex: extracellular matrix (green)
  11. simple sugar
    • simplest carbohydrate = Monosaccharide= one monomr of sugar
    • = O and H jointed to a carbon backbone
    • = tasted sweet and dissolve
    • = one of the energy sources
    • = precursor of many compounds including vitamin C
  12. Oligosachcharides
    • short chains of sugar units
    • more complicated sugar form
    • Oligo: a few
    • Energy source and parts of protein
  13. Disaccharides
    • two sugar units
    • Ex: lactose=sugar from milk, sucrose= table sugar (plentiful sugar in nature, consists of glucose and fructose)
    • and maltose
  14. Polysaccharide
    • sugar chains that stor energy, that energy is released to cells when the digestive system breaks these sugars down.
    • straight or branched chain of sugar monomers (glucose)
    • complex carbohydrate, jointed by dehydration synthesis
    • make up most of carbohydrate human eats, glycogen, startch, and cellulose, which consists only of glucose
  15. Starch
    • Polysaccharide made caborhydrate in our eats
    • storage form of glucose in plant( wheat, potatoes, rice, corn )
  16. cellulose
    indigestible fiber of plants (aids in human digestion)
  17. glycogen
    storage of glucose in animals (in liver and muscle)
  18. lipids
    • fats, and their chemical kin
    • cells use lipids to store energy, as structural material and signaling molecules
    • exess fat is stored in lipocyte which expand in size util the fat is used as fuel
  19. Fats are engergy-storng lipids
    • nonpolar hydrocarbon (hydrophobic, do not dissolve in water)
    • Fats: are glycerol with one, two, or three fatty acids attached
  20. Triglyceride
    • most common fat in human body
    • richest source of energy, most oil
    • Glycerol with three fatty acids attached
    • saturateda and unsaturated
    • unsaturated cis (H attached to C is next to each other) and trans (H attached to C are opposite of each other)
  21. Phospholipids
    • are key building blocks of cell membranes
    • - glycerol backbon
    • -two fatty acid tails
    • -hydrophillic phosphate head (a phosporus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms and another polar group)
    • -important component of all cell membranes
  22. Sterols
    • lipids without fatty acid tails
    • Cholesterol: the most common sterol in the human body
    • have a rigid backbon of four fused-together carbon rings
    • Cholesterol: bad and good, vital component of animal membranes
    • Derivatives of cholesterol include: vitmin D and steriod hormones
  23. Proteins
    • Biological molecules with many roles
    • -most diverse molecules, about 30,000, but built with only 20 amino acids
    • -has a lot of function
    • - made of three groups: amino group, carboxyl group, and R groups( special groups, 20 kinds, each with distinct properties)
  24. the sequence of amino acids
    • is a protein's primary structure
    • - amino acids linked by peptide bonds (covalent bond forms by condensation reaction)
    • - sequence of amino acids determines primary
    • -polypetide chain- chain of 3 or more amino acids
    • JUST REMEMBER THAT: protein are built from amino acid, 20
    • DNA determines the order of amino acid in the protein
  25. Protein's shape and function
    • -once amino acids have been assembled into a protein, the protein folds into its final shape.
    • - protein's final shape determines its function
    • -secondary structure due to hydrogen bonds: the helical coil and sheetlike
    • -tertiary structure: continued folding, twisted into functional domains
    • -Quaternary structure: hemoglobin: four chains; Insulin: two chain; many enzyme
  26. A protein may have more than one polypeptide chains
    • Globular
    • -hemoglobin: four chains
    • -insulin: twon chains
    • -many enzymes
    • Fibrous
    • -collagen: most common protein in human (made our hair)
    • -Keratin
  27. Disrupting a protein's shpae denature it
    • -effect of pH and temperature on protein's structure
    • -chnages in structure affect fucntion
    • -distruption of hydrogen bond lead to Denaturation
  28. Necleotides
    • are engergy carriers and have other roles
    • Includes:
    • -sugar, phosphate, nitrogeneous base (C, G, T, A)
  29. ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate)
    • -three phosphate groups
    • -release engergy when phosphate bongds are broken
  30. Nuclei Acids
    • -are strands (single and double) of nucleotides
    • -DNA, RNA- information molecules
  31. Take Home Message
    What is Lipids?
    are hydrophobic greasy or oily compounds
  32. Take Home Messge
    major reservoirs of energy
  33. T.H.M
    the main component of cell membranes
  34. THM
    • such as cholesterol
    • are component of membranes and precursors of steroid hormones and other vitl molecules
  35. thm
    what is protein?
    • organic molecules built of amino acids, have variety of roles in human body
    • -consists of one of more chains of amino acids
    • -DNA determines the order of amino acid in the chain. the sequence is unit for each type of proten
    • -the sequence that makes p a protein is the protein's primary structure
  36. Take Home Message
    newly formed of protein folds into a final shape, which determines its function in the body
    • -Proteins then fold into their secondary structure, a coil and extended sheet
    • -More folding produces the their level of protein structure, which dictates how the protein will function
    • -Proteins with more than one polypeptide chain have a forught level organization of quanternary structure
  37. nucleic acid?
    single or double stranded molecule built of nucleotides. Includes DNA and RNA