A&P Autonomic Nervous System

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lburke2
ID:
133380
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A&P Autonomic Nervous System
Updated:
2012-02-06 23:57:37
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Autonomic Nervous System
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Autonomic Nervous System
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  1. Effectors
    Organ, gland or muscle capable of being activated by nerve endings
  2. Somatic Effector(s)
    Skeletal Muscle
  3. Autonomic Effector(s)
    Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
  4. Somatic Structure:

    # of neurons
    Cell bodies
    Axons
    Ganglion
    Location of fibers
    Neurotransmitter
    • # of neurons: 1 motor neuron / motor unit
    • Cell bodies: CNS
    • Axons: thick and myelinated
    • Ganglion: dorsorootganglion (sensory)
    • Location of fibers: spinal & cranial nerves
    • Neurotransmitter: ACH
  5. Somatic Function:

    Effector
    Action
    Role
    • Effector: skeletal muscle
    • Action: voluntary
    • Role: excitatory
  6. Autonomic Structure:

    # of neurons
    Cell bodies
    Axons
    Ganglion
    Location of fibers
    Neurotransmitter
    • # of neurons: 2 motor neurons (pre & post ganglionic)
    • Cell bodies: pre-ganglions CNS & postganglions autonomic (motor) neurons
    • Axons: pre-thin and myelinated & post-thinner and unmyelinated
    • Ganglion: motor ganglion
    • Location of fibers: spinal & cranial nerves
    • Neurotransmitter: ACH & NE
  7. Autonomic Function:

    Effector
    Action
    Role
    • Effector: cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands
    • Action: involuntary
    • Role: excitation or inhibition
  8. Neurotransmitter
    Chemical released by a neuron that binds to receptors of neurons or effector cells and stimulates or inhibits them
  9. Neurotransmitter Types: released by cholinergic fibers
    Acetylcholine (ACH)
  10. Neurotransmitter Types: released by adrenergic fibers
    Norepinephrine (NE)
  11. Receptor Types: cholinergic
    Nicotinic and Muscarinic
  12. Recptor Types: adrenergic
    Alpha and Beta
  13. Dual Innervation
    Both systems serve same organs and have counterbalancing effects
  14. Parasympathetic System: Distribution
    • Head, neck, GI tract, and cranial nerves:
    • oculomotor nerves III
    • facial nerves VII
    • glossopharyngeal nerves IX
    • vagus Nerves X
  15. Parasympathetic: Outflow
    • Craniosacral (S2-S4)
    • Cranial Nerves: occulomotor nerves III, facial nerves VII, glossopharyngeal nerves IX, vagus nervves X
  16. Parasympathetic: Associated Ganglia
    Terminal ganglia
  17. Parasympathetic: Ganglia Locations
    Within the visceral effector organs
  18. Parasymoathetic: Fiber Length (pre&post) and Divergence
    • Long preganglionic
    • Short postganglionic
  19. Parasympathetic: General Function
    • Rest & Digest
    • Works to conserve and restore body energy
  20. Parasympathetic: Length of effects and Distribution of effects
    Not long lasting and local
  21. Parasympathetic: Neurotransmitters
    ACH and NE
  22. Parasympathetic: Type of Receptors
    Nicotinic & Muscarinic
  23. Parasympathetic: Effect on Specific Effectors

    Sweat gland
    Bronchial muscle of lungs
    Spleen
    Heart blood vessels
    Eye muscle
    Penis
    • Sweat gland: no effect
    • Bronchial muscle of lungs: constricts bronchioles
    • Spleen: no effect
    • Heart blood vessels: no effect
    • Eye muscle: constricts pupils
    • Penis: causes erection
  24. Smpathetic: Distribution
    Head, viscera of the thorax, abdomen, pelvis and blood vessels
  25. Sympathetic: Outflow
    Thoracolumbar (T1-L2)
  26. Sympathetic: Associated Ganglia
    Sympathetic trunk ganglia, collateral, or prevertebral ganglia
  27. Sympathetic: Ganglia Location
    Both sides of the spinal cord
  28. Sympathetic: Fiber Length (pre&post) and Divergence
    • Short preganglionic
    • Long postganglionic
  29. Sympathetic: General Function
    • Fight or Flight
    • Reacts to physical or emotional stress
  30. Sympathetic: Length of effects and Distribution of effects
    Long lasting (emergency situations) and widespread
  31. Sympathetic: Neurotransmitters
    NE
  32. Sympathetic: Type of Receptors
    Nicotinc & Alpha and Beta
  33. Sympathetic: Effect on Specific Effectors

    Sweat gland
    Bronchial muscle of lungs
    Spleen
    Heart blood vessels
    Eye muscle
    Penis
    • Sweat gland: causes increased sweating
    • Bronchial muscle of lungs: dilates bronchioles
    • Spleen: manufactures more oxygenated red blood celss
    • Heart blood vessels: causes vasodilation
    • Eye muscle: dilates pupils
    • Penis: causes ejaculation
  34. Visceral Reflexes (Structure and Function)
    Structure: receptor, sensory neuron, an integrating center, two autonomic motor neurons, and a visceral effector

    Function: adjusts the activities of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
  35. Antagonistic Interactions
    Heart respiratory system & GI tract
  36. Sympathetic (vasomotor) Tone
    Partial constriction of vascular system; hypertension and alpha blockers
  37. Parasympathetic Tone
    Heart slowing and normal function of GI and urinary tract
  38. Cooperative Effects
    Controls of external genitalia
  39. Unique Roles of Sympathetic Division
    • Thermoregulation
    • Renin and blood pressure
    • Metabolic effects
    • Localized versus diffuse effects
  40. Control of Autonomic Functioning
    • 1. Brain stem and spinal cord
    • 2. Hypothalamic
    • a. major control and integration center of ANS
    • b. connected in sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
    • 3. Corticol controls

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