Card Set Information

2012-02-06 23:51:32
General Psychology

Exam 1
Show Answers:

  1. Goals of Psychology
    • Describe: Making a detailed record of scientific observations.
    • Understand: Stating the causes of the behavior.
    • Predict:Forecasting behavior accurately.
    • Control: Altering the conditions that affect behavior.
  2. Schools of Psychology
    • Freud: Father of Psychoanalysis
    • Wundt: Father of Psychology
    • Maslow and Rogers: Humanistic
  3. Overt Behavior
    Directly observable actions.
  4. Covert Behavior
    Private, internal activities.
  5. Psychology
    Study of behavior and mental processes.
  6. Scientific Method
    • 1: Make an observation
    • 2: Define the problem.
    • 3: Propose a hypothesis.
    • 4: Gather the evidence and test the hypothesis.
    • 5: Building a theory.
    • 6: Publish the results.
  7. Representative Sample
    A small group that accurately reflects a population
  8. Experimental Subjects
    Animals or humans whose behavior is investigated in an experiment.
  9. Classical Conditioning
    A form of learning in which reflex responses are associated with new stimuli.
  10. Operant Conditioning
    Learning based on the consequences of responding.
  11. Pavlov's Classical Conditioning Theory and Examples
  12. Skinner's Operant Conditioning Theory and Examples
  13. Conditioned Stimulus
    Evokes a response because it has been repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
  14. Conditioned Response
    A learned response elicitied by a conditioned stimulus.
  15. UCR
    Reflex response elicited by an uncoditioned stimulus.
  16. UCS
    Innately capable of eliciting a response.
  17. NS
    A stimulus that does not evoke a response.
  18. Positive Reinforcement
    Occurs when response is followed by a reward or other positive response.
  19. Negative Reinforcement
    Occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or by the removal of an unpleasant event.
  20. Primary Reinforcer
    Nonlearned reinforcers; usually those that satisfy physiological needs.
  21. Secondary Reinforcer.
    A learned reinforcer; often one that gains reinforcing properties by association with a primary reinforcer.
  22. Token Reinforcer
    A tangible secondary reinforcer such as money, gold stars, poker chips, and the like.
  23. Social Reinforcer.
    Reinforcement based on receiving attention, approval, or affection from another person.
  24. Fixed Ratio
  25. Fixed Variable
  26. Variable Ratio
  27. Feedback
  28. Punishment
    The process of suppressing a response.
  29. Encoding
    Converting information into a form in which it will be retained in memory.
  30. Retrieval
    Recovering information from storage into memory.
  31. Sensory
    The first, normally unconscious, stage of memory, which holds an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less.
  32. Short-Term Memory
  33. Long Term Memory
  34. Rehearsal
  35. Skill (Procedural) Memory
  36. Fact (Declarative) Memory
  37. Semantic Memory
  38. Episodic Memory
  39. Recall
  40. Recognition Memory
  41. Forgetting-Encoding Failure
  42. Lack of Use
  43. Cues
  44. Priming
  45. Amnesia
  46. Hippocampus
  47. Mental Images
  48. Photograph Memory
  49. Mnemonics
  50. Variable
  51. any condition that changes or can be made to change; a measure, event, or state that may vary.