the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location, in relation to other locations.
A form of economic and social organization characterized by the profit motive and the control of the means of production, distribution and the exchange of goods by private ownership.
the distance that people percieve to exist in agiven situation.
Cognitive image ( mental Maps)
psychological representations of locations that are made up from peoples individual ideas and impressions of these locations.
space defined and measured in terms of the nature and degree of peoples values, feelings,beliefs, and perceptions about locations, districts and regions.
Distance decay function
The rate at which a particular activity or process diminishes with increasing distance.
economies of scale
cost advantages to manufacturers that accrue from high-volume production, since the average cost of production falls with increasing output
groups of aerial units that have a high degree of homogeneity in terms of particular distinguishing features
friction of distance
deterrent or inhibiting effect of distance on human activity.
regions with some variability in certain attributes but with an overall coherance to the structure and dynamics of economic, political, and social organizations.
study of census data and commercial data ( such as sales data and property records) about the populations of small districts to create profiles of those populations for market research.
capacity to understand changing patterns, changing processes, and changing relationships among people, places and regions.
geographical information system (GIS)
organized collection of computer hardware, software and geographic data that is desighned to capture, store, update, manipulate, and display geographically referenced information.
Global Positioning system ( GPS)
system of satelites that orbit earth on precisely predictable paths, broadcasting highly accurate time and location information.
increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political and cultural changes.
study of spacial organization of human activity and of peoples relationships with their environments.
sense that people make themselves through their subjective feelings based on their everyday experiences and wider social relations.
infrastructure ( or fixed social capital):
underlying framework of services and amenities needed to facilitate productive activity.
shared meanings among people, derived from there lived experiences of everyday practice.
assertion by the government of a country that a minority living outside its formal borders belongs to it historically and culturally.
angular distance of a point on earths surface, measured north or south from the equator which is 0 degrees.
Taken for granted pattern and context of everyday living through which people conduct their lives.
angular distance of a point on earths surface, measured east to west from the prime meridian ( the line that passes through both poles and through Greenwich, England, and that has the value of 0 degrees.)
economic policies that are predicated on a minimalisr role for the state, assuming the desirability of free markets as the ideal condition not only for economic organizatrion but also for political and social life.
ordinary landscapes ( vernacular lanscapes)
everyday lanscapes that people create in he course of their lives.
subarea of the discipline that studies earths natural processes and their outcomes.
specific geographic setting with distinctive physical, social, and cultural attributes.
larger sized territory thaat encompasses many places, all or most of which share similar attributes in comparison with the attributes of place elsewhere.
study of the ways unique combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes.
feeling of collective identity based on populations politico-territorial identificationwithin a state or across state boundaries.
classification of individual places or aerial units.
collection of information about parts of earths surface by means of aerial photography or satelite imagery desighned to record data on visible, infrared and micrwave sensor systems.
Contemporary societies in which politics is increasingly about avoiding hazards.
extreme devotion to local interests and customs.
sense of place
feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place and the symbolism that they attach to it.
physical attributes of a location- its terrain, its soil, vegetation, and water sources for example.
location of a place relative to other places and human activity.
study of geographic phenomena in terms of their arrangements as points, lines, areas or surfaces on a map.
way that things spread through space and overtime.
movement and flows involving human activity.
independent political units with territorial boundaries that are intentionally recognized by other states.
collections of individual stateswith a common goal that may be economic and or political in nature.
representations of particular values or aspirations that the builders and financiers of thise lanscapes want to impart to a larger public.
rate at which places move closer togeather in travel or communication time or cost.
connections between, or connectivity of, particular points in space.
usefulness of a specific place or location to a particular person or group.
large-scale geographics divisions based on continental and physiographical settings that contain major groupings of people with broadly similar cultural attributes.