Bio Ch. 2

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Risette
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133420
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Bio Ch. 2
Updated:
2012-02-07 01:00:56
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Biology chapter
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Bio ch 2
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  1. Pertaining to a substance that does not dissolve in water
    hydrophobic
  2. The central part of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
    atomic nucleus
  3. the tendency of polar molecules (such as water) to adhere to polar surfaces (such as glass)
    adhesion
  4. With a hydrogen ion concentration less than that of hydroxide ions
    basic
  5. A substance that releases hydrogen ions into solution; a solution with a pH of less than 7
    Acid
  6. The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element
    atom
  7. The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree C
    specific heat
  8. The tendency for hydrophobic molecules to cluster together when immersed in water
    hydrophobic interaction
  9. The process that forms and breaks chemical bonds that hold atoms together
    chemical reaction
  10. A chemical bond formed by the electrical attraction between positively and negatively charged ions
    ioninc bond
  11. The property of a liquid to resist penetration by objects at its interface with the air, due to cohesion between molecules of the liquid
    surface tension
  12. Pertaining to a substance that dissolves readily in water or to parts of a large molecule that form hydrogen bonds with water
    hydrophilic
  13. A substance that cannot be broken down, or converted, to a simpler substance by ordinary chemical means
    element
  14. A compound that minimizes changes in pH by reversibly taking up or releasing ions
    buffer
  15. Any molecule that reacts with free radicals, neutralizing their ability to damage biological molecules
    antioxidant
  16. Referring to a solution with a H ion concentration exceeding that of OH ions; referring to a substance that releases H ions
    Acidic
  17. A covalent bond with equal sharing electrons
    nonpolar covalent bond
  18. A scale, with values from 0 to 14, used for measuring the relative acidity of a solution; 0 to 7 is acidic, 7 to 14 is basic
    pH scale
  19. A substance capable of combining with and neutralizing ions in a solution; a solution with a pH of more than 7; in molecular genetics, one of the nitrogen-containing, single of double-ringed structures that distinguish one nucleotide from another
    base
  20. A subatomic particle that is found in the nuclei of atoms, bears no charge, and has a mass approximately equal to that of a proton
    neutron
  21. A subatomic particle, found in an electron shell outside the nucleus of an atom, that bears a unit of negative charge and very little mass
    electron
  22. The energy that must be supplied to a compound to transform it from a liquid into a gas at its boiling temperature
    heat of vaporization
  23. A chemical bond between atoms in which electrons are shared
    covalent bond
  24. Pertaining to an atom with an unstable nucleus that spontaneously disintegrates, with the emission of radiation
    radioactive
  25. A particle composed of one or more atoms held together by chemical bonds; the smallest particle of a compound that displays all the properties of that compound
    molecule
  26. A molecule with an unpaired electron, which makes it highly unstable and reactive with nearby molecules
    free radical
  27. A covalent bond with unequal sharing of electrons, such that one atom is relatively negative and the other is relatively positive
    polar covalent bond
  28. A region within which electrons orbit that corresponds to a fixed energy level at a given distance from the atomic nucleus of an atom
    electron shell
  29. The number of protons in the nuclei of all atoms of a particular element
    atomic number
  30. A charged atom or molecule; an atom or molecule that has either an excess of electrons (and hence is negatively charged) or has lost electrons (and is positively charged)
    ion
  31. One of several forms of a single element, the nuclei of which contain the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
    isotope
  32. A substance whose molecules are formed by different types of atoms; can be broken into its constituent elements by chemical means
    compound
  33. The total mass of all protons, electrons, and neutrons within an atom
    atomic mass
  34. A solvent containing one or more dissolved substances (solutes)
    solution
  35. The tendency of the molecules of a substance to stick together
    cohesion
  36. A subatomic particle that is found in the nuclei of atoms, bears a unit of positive charge, and has a relatively large mass, roughly equal to the mass of the neutron
    proton
  37. The force of attraction between neighboring atoms that holds them together in a molecule
    chemical bond
  38. A liquid capable of dissolving (uniformly dispersing) other substances in itself
    solvent
  39. The weak attraction between a hydrogen atom that bears a partial positive charge and another atom (normally O, F, or N) that bears a partial negative charge
    hydrogen bond

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