A&P Endocrine System

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lburke2
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133425
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A&P Endocrine System
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2012-02-07 03:55:02
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Endocrine System
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Endocrine System
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  1. Nervous System:

    Messengers
    Targets
    Distance Message Travels
    Time to onset of action
    Duration of action
    • Messengers: neurotransmitter released in response to nerve impulse
    • Targets: muscles & glands
    • Distance message travels: short- across synaptic cleft
    • Time to onset of action: milliseconds
    • Duration of action: milliseconds
  2. Endocrine System:

    Messengers
    Targets
    Distance Message Travels
    Time to onset of action
    Duration of action
    • Messengers: hormones released into blood, nerve impulses, measured levels in blood
    • Targets: all body cells (every organ gets blood)
    • Distance message travels: long- goes through bloodstream
    • Time to onset of action: seconds to minutes to hours to days
    • Duration of action: seconds to days
  3. Endocrine: Structural Organization
    • Composed of a number of widely scattered glands
    • Lacks anatomical continuity
  4. Exocrine Glands

    Tissue Type
    Release of Secretions
    Secretions
    • Tissue type: modified epithelium, unicellular or multicellular, ducted
    • Release of secretions: external secretions into ducts
    • Secretions: useful non-hormonal products (sweat & saliva)
  5. Endocrine Glands

    Tissue Type
    Release of Secretions
    Secretions
    • Tissue type: modified epithelium, arranged in cords and branching networks
    • Release of secretions: internal secretions directly into bloodstream, ductless
    • Secretions: hormones (chemical messengers)
  6. Major Endocrine Glands
    *Pituitary(master gland) , thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads, pineal gland, thymus
  7. Endocrine Producing Tissues
    Heart, GI tract, placenta, kidney
  8. Neuroendocrine Organ
    Hypothalamus
  9. Circulating Hormones (endocrines)
    Hormones that act on distant target cells (moved by heart)
  10. Non-Circulating Hormones (local hormones)

    Paracrines
    Autocrines
    • Paracrines: act on neighboring cells
    • Autocrines: act on the same cell that secreted them
  11. Hormones:


    Amino acid-based (not lipid soluble)
    Steroids (lipid soluble)
    Eicosanoids
    • Amino acid-based (not lipid soluble):
    • a.simple amino acid derivatives, polypeptides or proteins
    • b. most hormones
    • Steroids (lipid soluble):
    • a. cholesterol-based
    • b. adrenocorticol and gonadal hormones
    • Eicosanoids:
    • a. fatty acid-based
    • b. leukotrienes and prostaglandins
  12. Protein-Based Hormone
    • TSH = thyroid stimulating hormone
    • TH = thyroid hormone
  13. Hormone Action
    Endocrine gland to hormone secreted to binds to receptor of target cell to modification of target cell function
  14. Hormone Action: catecholamines & protein hormones
    Not lipid soluble; hormone (first messenger) binds to receptors located in the plasma membrane
  15. Hormone Action: steroids and thyroid hormones
    Lipid soluble; hormone binds to receptors located in the cytoplasm or nucleus
  16. Hormone Action: Second-messenger mechanism
    (most amino acid-based)
    Hormone to second messenger to receptor to desired reaction in cell = DNA making a change
  17. Hormone Action: Direct gene activation (cholesterol-based)
    Hormone to receptor to desired reaction in cell (direct effect)
  18. Target Cell Specificity
    It must have receptors to respond to hormone
  19. Half-Life: Onset and Duration of Hormone Activity
    Time it takes for half of hormone to be degraded

    2 Pathways: degrade them, or discrete them (pee out)
  20. Endocrine Gland Stimuli:

    Humoral (PTH, Osteoclasts, Calcitonin, Ccells)
    Neural
    Hormonal (trophic = TSH, TH)
    • Humoral: chemical changes in blood (PTH = increase levels of calcium, Osteoclasts = too low a level of calcium, Calcitonin = decrease levels of calcium, Ccells = produce calcitonin)
    • Neural: signals from nervous system
    • Hormonal: other hormones (trophic = TSH, TH)
  21. Major Endocrine Organs: Pituitary (Hypophysis)

    *Master Gland
    Location
    Structure
    Lobes
    • Master Gland = secretes 9+ hormones
    • Location: within selle turcica of sphenoid bone just behind optic chiasma
    • Structure: small, pea shaped gland, attached to hypothalamus via infundibulum (stalk)
    • Lobes:
    • a. Posterior- releases neurohormones secreted by neurons in the hypothalamus
    • b. Anterior (adenohypophysis)- manufactures and releases hormones
  22. Relationship between hypothalamus and pituitary
    Direct neural tract: hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract = nerve tracts from hypothalamic nuclei to posterior pituitary

    Blood portal system: hypophyseal portal system = speciaized venous pathways
  23. Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis) - epithelial tissue (75%)

    Structure
    Hormones
    • Structure: consists of cords of epithelial cells that contain granules of stored hormone
    • Hormones:
    • GH (growth hormone)
    • TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
    • ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
    • FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
    • LH (luteinizing hormone)
    • PRL (prolactin)
  24. Tropic Hormones or Trophins
    Hormones that influence another endocrine gland
  25. Anterior Pituitary Hormones: GH (Growth Hormone) = somatotropin

    Effects
    Effects all organs (bone and skeletal muscle); regulates body growth and metabolism
  26. Anterior Pituitary Hormones: TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) = thyrotropin

    Effects
    Stimulates thyroid gland to synthesize and secrete thyroid hormones
  27. Anterior Pituitary Hormones: ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) = corticotrophin
    Stimulates adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids
  28. Anterior Pituitary: FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) = gonadotropin
    Stimulates testes and ovaries (in females it stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estrogen production; in males it stimulates spermatogenesis)
  29. Anterior Pituitary Hormones: LH (luteinizing hormone) = gonadotropin
    Stimulates testes and ovaries (in females it is responsible for ovulation and ovarian production of estrogen/progesterone; in males promotes testosterone production)
  30. Anterior Pituitary Hormones: PRL (prolactin)
    Stimulates the female mammary glands; development of the mammary gland and milk production
  31. Posterior Pituitary (neurohypophysis = posterior lobe and infundulum) - neural tissue (25%)

    Structure
    Hormones
    • Structure: meshwork of nerve fibers and specialized cells
    • Hormones:
    • OT (oxytocin)
    • ADH (antidiuretic hormone, vasopressin)
  32. Posterior Pituitary Hormones: OT (oxytocin)
    Targets the pregnant uterus and smooth muscle of mammary glands resulting in childbirth and milk ejection
  33. Posterior Pituitary Hormones: ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
    Stimulates the kidneys, arterioles resulting in water retention in kidneys and vasoconstriction of arterioles
  34. Homeostatic Imbalances or Diseases
    • Gigantism
    • Acromegaly
    • Pituitary dwarfism
    • Diabetes insipidus
  35. Gigantism:

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Treatments
    • Causes: GH targets still-active epiphyseal (growth) plates
    • Symptoms: abnormally tall (8 feet)
    • Treatments: removal of tumor
  36. Acromegaly:

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Treatments
    • Causes: GH secretion after epiphyseal plates have closed
    • Symptoms: enlarged extremities (bones of hands, feet & face)
    • Treatments: Surgical removal of tumor
  37. Pituitary Dwarfism:

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Treatments
    • Causes: GH deficiency in children
    • Symptoms: slow long bone growth (4 feet)
    • Treatments: growth hormone replacement therapy
  38. Diabetes Insipidus:

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Treatments
    • Causes: not enough ADH
    • Symptoms: lot of urine, thirsty, loss of electrolytes
    • Treatments: drink water
  39. Thyroid:

    Location
    Structure
    Function
    Hormone
    • Location: just anferior to larynx
    • Structure: butterfly-shaped, with two laterl lobes connected by an isthmus, mostly comprised of follicles = hollow, epithelial spheres that synthesize and secrete hormone calcitonin
    • Function: stores and produces in large quantities (100-day supply)
    • Hormone: TH (thyroid hormone)
  40. Thyroid Hormones: TH = thyroid hormone, T3 triiodothronine, T4 tetraiodothyronin (thyroxine)
    Synthesis of thyroid hormone is stimulated by TSH
  41. Throid Diseases
    • Goiter
    • Myxedema
    • Cretinism
    • Graves's disease
  42. Goiter Disease: "colloidal"

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Treatments
    • Causes: does not recognize thyroid hormone and says make more
    • Symptoms: enlargement of thyroid
    • Treatments: iodine supplements or hormone replacement therapy
  43. Myxedema: "hypothyroid" (mucous swelling)

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Treatments
    • Causes: lack of iodine
    • Symptoms: weight gain, feeling chilled, constipation, thick & dry skin, puffy eyes, lethargy
    • Treatments: Iodine supplements
  44. Cretinism:

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Treatments
    • Causes: genetic deficiencyof thyroid gland
    • Symptoms: mental retardation, short disproportionate body, thick tongue & neck
    • Treatments: thyroid replacement therapy
  45. Grave's Disease:

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Causes
    • Causes: too much thyroid hormone
    • Symptoms: elevated metabolic rate, sweating, rapid irregular heartbeat, nervousness
    • Treatments: remove tumor (thyroid gland) and ingestion of radioactive iodine
  46. Parathyroid Glands

    Location
    Structure
    Hormone
    • Location: posterior aspect of thyroid gland
    • Structure: two pairs or four glands
    • Hormone: PTH (parathyroid hormone)
  47. Parathyroid Gland Hormones: PTH
    Controls calcium balance in blood (increases calcium levels)
  48. Adrenal (suprarenal) Glands

    Location
    Structure
    Hormones
    • Location: on top of kidneys (suprarenal)
    • Structure: pyramid-shaped, outer cortex and inner medulla
    • Hormones:
    • Adrenal cortex (steroid hormones): mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids and gonadocorticoids (androgens)
    • Adrenal Medulla (catecholamines): epinephrine and norepinephrine
  49. Adrenal Glands: Histology
    • Cortex (3 layers) - bulk of gland
    • Layers:
    • zona glomerulosa - mineralcorticoids (aldesterone)
    • zona fasciculata - glucocorticoids (cortisol)
    • zona reticularis - gonadocorticoids (androgens...testosterone)
    • Medulla (chromaffin cells)...functions as part of sympathetic nervous system
  50. Adrenal Gland Hormones: Adrenal Cortex (steroid hormones): mineralocorticoids
    Mineralocorticoids: target = kidney; effects = regulate electrolyte and water balance (aldosterone)
  51. Adrenal Gland Hormones: Adrenal Cortex (steroid hormones): glucocorticoids
    Glucocorticoids: target = most cells of body; effects = essential for response to stress (cortisol)
  52. Adrenal Gland Hormones: Adrenal Cortex (steroid hormones): gonadocorticoids (androgens)
    Gonadocorticoids (androgens) - become testosterone and estrogens after release
  53. Adrenal Gland Hormones: Adrenal Medulla (catecholamines): epinephrine and norepinephrine
  54. Adrenal Gland Diseases
    • Aldosteronism
    • Cushing's Disease
    • Addison's Disease
    • Androgenital Syndrome
  55. Aldosteronism:

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Treatments
    • Causes: too much mineralocorticoids, adrenal tumors
    • Symptoms: hypertension & edema, increased excretion of potassium ions, muscle weakness (paralysis)
    • Treatments: remove tumor
  56. Cushing's Disease:

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Treatments
    • Causes: too much glucocorticoids, ACTH-releasing pituitary tumor, adrenal cortex tumor
    • Symptoms: persistent increase in glucose levels, loss in muscle/bone protein, water and salt retention, hypertension & edema, swollen "moon" face, fat to abdomen & posterior neck, bruising, poor wound healing
    • Treatments: remove tumor or ending of drug use
  57. Addison's Disease:

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Treatments
    • Causes: too little glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids
    • Symptoms: weight loss, decreased plasma glucose & sodium levels, increased potassium levels, dehydration & hypotension
    • Treatments: corticosteroid replacement therapy
  58. Androgenital Syndrome:

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Treatments
    • Causes: too much glucocorticoids
    • Symptoms: rapid puberty (maturation of reproductive organs...males = womanly appearance, woman = beards)
    • Treatments: remove tumor
  59. Pancreas

    Location
    Structure
    Hormones
    • Location: partially behind stomach
    • Structure: soft triangular organ, *mixed gland- exocrine & endocrine functions, 95% of gland acinar cells = islet of Langerhans = endocrine portion
    • Hormones: glucagon and insulin
  60. Histology of islets of Langerhans

    2 major cell types: alpha and beta
    • Alpha cells = glucagon
    • Beta cells = insulin
  61. Pancreas Hormones: Alpha Cells (glucagon)

    Target
    Effects
    • Target = liver
    • Effects = raise blood glucose level
  62. Pancreas Hormones: Beta Cells (Insulin)

    Target
    Effects
    • Target = most cells of body
    • Effects = lower blood glucose level
  63. Pancreas Diseases
    • Diabetes Mellitus I
    • Diabetes Mellitus II
  64. Diabetes Mellitus I: "Juvenal"

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Treatments
    • Causes: decrease in insulin
    • Symptoms: thirsty, hungry, pee a lot
    • Treatments: insulin supplements
  65. Diabetes Mellitus II:

    Causes
    Symptoms
    Treatments
    • Causes: normal insulin but the cells wont recognize insulin
    • Symptoms: obeseity
    • Treatments: insulin supplements
  66. Gonads = Testes and Ovaries:

    Location
    Hormones
    • Location: testes in scrotum, ovaries in abdominopelvic cavity
    • Hormones: testosterone, estrogens and progesterone
  67. Pineal Gland:

    Location
    Functions
    Hormones
    • Location: attached to roof of 3rd ventricle
    • Functions: timing of the biological clock, shift work and SAD
    • Hormone: melatonin
  68. Thymus:

    Location
    Hormones
    • Location: over base of heart
    • Hormones: thymopoietins and thymosins
  69. Other Hormone Producing Structures
    Heart, gastrointestinl tract, placenta, kidneys, skin, adipose tissue
  70. Glands & Hormones
  71. Regulates the function of another endocrine gland
    (1 gland)
    Anterior Pituitary

    Hormones: FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
  72. Maintenace of salt & water balance in the extracellular fluid (2 glands)
    • Adrenal Cortex
    • Hormone: aldosterone

    • Posterior Pituitary
    • Hormone: ADH
  73. Directly involved in milk production and ejection
    (2 glands)
    • Psterior Pituitary
    • Hormone: oxytocin
  74. Anterior Pituitary
    Hormone: prolactin
  75. Controls the rate of body metabolism cellular oxidation
    (1 gland)
    • Thyroid
    • Hormone: T3 / T4
  76. Regulates blood calcium levels (2 glands)
    • Thyroid
    • Hormone: Calcitonin
  77. Parathyroid
    Hormone: PTH
  78. Regulates blood glucose levels; produces by the same "mixed" gland (1 gland)
    • Pancreas
    • Hormones: insulin and glucagon
  79. Released in response to stressors (2 glands)
    • Adrenal Cortex
    • Hormone: cortisol

    • Adrenal Medulla
    • Hormone: epinephrine
  80. Drive development of secondary sex characteristics in males (1 gland)
    • Testes
    • Hormone: testosterone
  81. Directly responsible for refulation of the menstrual cycle
    (1 gland)
    • Ovaries
    • Hormones: estrogens and progesterone

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