bio notes 1/23
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bio notes 1/23
what accounts for the double membrane of mitochondria and chloroplasts?
what is lost from chloroplasts of all plant and algal cells except the glaucophytes?
what did ancestral eukaryotes engulfing cyanobacteria give rise to?
glaucophytes, red algae, and green algae
when does secondary endosybiosis occur?
when green and red algae, and glaucophytes are engulfed
what does secondary endosymbiosis account for?
chloroplasts surrounded by 3 or 4 membranes, presence of a nucleomorph (trace of engulfed cells nucleus)
what are some characteristics of protists?
unicellular, aquatic, motile, nutritionally diverse, many from vacuoleshave variety of cell surfaces, eukaryotes, cell walls
where do protists live
marine, freshwater, body fluids
what do protists use to move?
pseudopodia, flagella, cilia
how are protists nutritionally diverse
autotrophs, heterotrophs, mixotrophs
what do contractile vacuoules do?
collect and repel water
what happens as digestion begins in a eukaryotic protist?
vescicle becomes acidic, then turns back to basic
what kind of cell surface do protists have?
plasmodial membrane, may have pellicle (paramecium, euglenia)
what are the cell walls of protists made of?
what is the glass shell (cell wall) of a diatom made of?
how do protists reproduce?
sexually and asexually
four types of asexual reproduction used by protists?
cell division, multiple fission, budding, asexual spores
two common types of cell division in protists?
mitosis and cytokinesis
what is it called when cells split from one multinucleate cell into many cells?
what is the outgrowth of a new cell from the surface of another?
what are specialized cells that develop into a new organism?
what does sexual reproduction of protists include?
production of gametes by meiosis
describe the diplontic life cycle
diploid undergoes meiosis to produce haploid gametes which fuse to form diploid zygote, (only gametes are haploid)
describe the haplontic life cycle
undergoes mitosis to produce haploid gametes which fuse to form diploid zygote (only zygotes are diploid)
describe alternation of generations life cycle
diploid sporophyte alternates with a haploid, multicellular gamete producing organism (gametophyte)