bio notes 1/23

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bio notes 1/23
2012-02-07 02:03:58
bio notes

bio notes
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  1. what accounts for the double membrane of mitochondria and chloroplasts?
    primary endosymbiosis
  2. what is lost from chloroplasts of all plant and algal cells except the glaucophytes?
  3. what did ancestral eukaryotes engulfing cyanobacteria give rise to?
    glaucophytes, red algae, and green algae
  4. when does secondary endosybiosis occur?
    when green and red algae, and glaucophytes are engulfed
  5. what does secondary endosymbiosis account for?
    chloroplasts surrounded by 3 or 4 membranes, presence of a nucleomorph (trace of engulfed cells nucleus)
  6. what are some characteristics of protists?
    unicellular, aquatic, motile, nutritionally diverse, many from vacuoleshave variety of cell surfaces, eukaryotes, cell walls
  7. where do protists live
    marine, freshwater, body fluids
  8. what do protists use to move?
    pseudopodia, flagella, cilia
  9. how are protists nutritionally diverse
    autotrophs, heterotrophs, mixotrophs
  10. what do contractile vacuoules do?
    collect and repel water
  11. what happens as digestion begins in a eukaryotic protist?
    vescicle becomes acidic, then turns back to basic
  12. what kind of cell surface do protists have?
    plasmodial membrane, may have pellicle (paramecium, euglenia)
  13. what are the cell walls of protists made of?
  14. what is the glass shell (cell wall) of a diatom made of?
    silicon dioxide
  15. how do protists reproduce?
    sexually and asexually
  16. four types of asexual reproduction used by protists?
    cell division, multiple fission, budding, asexual spores
  17. two common types of cell division in protists?
    mitosis and cytokinesis
  18. what is it called when cells split from one multinucleate cell into many cells?
    multiple fission
  19. what is the outgrowth of a new cell from the surface of another?
  20. what are specialized cells that develop into a new organism?
    asexual spores
  21. what does sexual reproduction of protists include?
    production of gametes by meiosis
  22. describe the diplontic life cycle
    diploid undergoes meiosis to produce haploid gametes which fuse to form diploid zygote, (only gametes are haploid)
  23. describe the haplontic life cycle
    undergoes mitosis to produce haploid gametes which fuse to form diploid zygote (only zygotes are diploid)
  24. describe alternation of generations life cycle
    diploid sporophyte alternates with a haploid, multicellular gamete producing organism (gametophyte)