NPB 10 MT 1

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NPB 10 MT 1
2012-02-07 04:25:08

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  1. who exmined the thin slide of cork and concluded that it looks like cell?
    Robert Hooke
  2. what was the first witness live cell on a microscope?
    algea spyrogyla
  3. who suggest that cells were the basic units of life?
    Schwann and Schleiden
  4. who conclude that all cells come from pre-existing cells?
    Rudolf Virchow
  5. fucntion efficiently of a cell that is bult to carry out life?
    3 to 300 um
  6. The Parts of Eukaryotic Cell
    • the interior of the cell is divided into organelles, each with one or more special functions
    • cells compartmentalization with organelles allows many reactions to occur to react at the same time
  7. function of nucleus?
    • protecting the DNA from potentially damaging reactions in cytoplasm
    • controls access to DNA
  8. endoplamic reticulum
    smooth and rough ER
    • Rough ER
    • -routing, modifying new polypeptide chain
    • Smooth ER
    • -synthesize lipids degrades fats and inactivate toxin
  9. Gogli Body
    • -modifies new polypeptide chain
    • -sorting and shipping protein and lipids for export or insertion into cell membranes
  10. vesicles
    transporting, storng, digesting, substances in a cell; other functions
  11. Mitochondria
    make ATP by sugar breakdown
  12. Lysosome
    intracelluar digestion, recycle materials
  13. Peroxisome
    inactivating toxin
  14. ribosome
    • organelles without membrane
    • assembling polypeptide chains
    • sites of protein synthesis
    • attached to Rough ER and free in cytoplasm
  15. Cenriole
    • organelle without membrane
    • anchor for cytoskeleton
  16. Plasma membrane
    conrtol amount and kind of substances move in and out of the cell
  17. Plasma Membrane: a double layers of lipid
    • - selective permeable
    • -controls the movement of sub. move in and out
    • -mix of lipid and protein, protein float in the see ofphospolipid bilayers
    • -extremely thin; fluid (phospolipids move around)
  18. Nucleus
    • master control center
    • protective "isolation chamber" for DNA the genetic material
    • Main parts: Nuclear envelope, Nucleolus, Nucleoplasm, Chromatin, Chromosomes
  19. ribosome
    where RNA are read and protein are made
  20. nucleus pore
    channel to nuclear envelope
  21. Nucleolus
    the heart of cell
  22. Chromosome
    DNA packed in a high organization
  23. RNA messeger combines with protein
    to make Ribosome
  24. Nuclear envelope
    • -seletively permeable
    • -two lpid bilayrs with proteins
    • -outer portion of nuclear enveloped merges with endoplasmic membrane
    • -inner portion of the nuclear envelope anchors DNA molecule with threadlike bits of protein
  25. chromatin
    • cell's DNA with associated protens
    • chromatin is winded to make chromosome
  26. chromosome
    • double strand of DNA molecule
    • 6 feet long, packed inside the nucleus of every human cell
    • 46 molecules, one for each chromosome, and each for 1.5 inches long
  27. events that begin in the nucleus continues to unfold in the cell cytoplasm
    organelles of a cell's endomembrane system assemble lipids and produce the final form of proteins, and then sort and ship these modelcules to various destinations.
  28. edomembrane system
    • ER+golgi+ribosome+vesicles(lysosome and peroxisome)
    • China' of the cell
    • is connected to nucleus envelope
  29. Endoplasmic recticulum ER
    • assembly line
    • rough ER: studded with ribosome, role in protein modification
    • smooth ER: Absence of ribosomes, role in lipid synthesis
  30. Golgi Bodies
    • finish, pack, and ship
    • -flatten sacs; enzymes in the sacs modify proteins and lipid for cell export
  31. Vesicle
    • 1. digest
    • 2. move substances into and through cells
    • -patches of the Golgi membrane bulge and break off
  32. Lysosome (junkyard of the cell)
    contains digestive enzymes breaking down lipids, sugars, nucleic acids, cell parts and whole cells
  33. Peroxisomes (disposal of hazardous substances)
    • contans enzymes that break down fatty acids and amino acids
    • hydrogen peroxide is converted into water and oxygen, alcohol is broken down
  34. Mitochondria
    • -cell's energy factories
    • -found in eukaryotic cells
    • -ATP formed from organic compound in the presence of oxygen
    • -allow for stockpilling of hydrogen ions and the formation of ATP
    • -contain their own DNA (inherited solely from mother; mutates fast; used to track relations) and ribosomes; divide independently of the cells they are in
    • -roughly the size of bacteria
    • -yes, they are evolved from ancient bacteria
  35. the cell's skeleton- cytoskeleton
    • internal scaffold
    • -there are three types
    • Actin filament, Microtubule, Intermediate filament
  36. fuction of cytoskeleton
    • not permanent/ rigid
    • assembles/disassembles fast
    • viscoelastic (like corn starch)
    • -use for mortility, transport and maintaining shape
  37. Microtubule
    • largest type of cytoskeleton
    • railway lines in the cell
    • flagella and cilia arise from centrioles
    • -very important for muscle cell, allow to contract
  38. Microfilaments (actin)
    reinforce parts of the cell, generate force and movement
  39. Intermediate filaments
    • add strength
    • anchor other
    • filaments and nucleus