BIO 342: Ch1

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  1. Cells of the nervous system
    • Neurons
    • Glia
  2. Central dogma
    DNA in nucleus undergo transcription to be converted into mRNA which is then translated into protein
  3. Neurons
    specialized for electrical signaling, communication with other cells
  4. Neuroglia or glia
    supporting cells
  5. Components of a neuron
    • Dendrites
    • Synapses
    • Myelinated axon
    • Cell body
    • Node of ranvier
  6. Dendrites
    • Arborized
    • Info received via synapses on dendrites
    • Primary location of post-synaptic specialization (many neurotransmitter receptors)
  7. Composition of synaptic contacts
    • Presynaptic terminal
    • Synaptic cleft
    • Post-synaptic specialization
  8. Presynaptic terminal
    • (aka synaptic ending)
    • Versicles with neurotransmitter molecules or neurotransmitters
  9. Synaptic cleft
    space between presynaptic terminal and post-synaptic specialization
  10. Post-synaptic specialization
    • (aka post-synaptic cell)
    • On dendrite or cell body
  11. Receptors
    receive chemical signal and convert to an electrical
  12. Axon
    • specialized for electrical conduction
    • Short = interneuron (local circuit)
    • Long = projection neurons
  13. Myelin
    • insulator
    • increases speed of AP along axon
  14. Axon hillock
    AP is initiated
  15. Cell body
    • occasionally the site of synapses
    • location of nucleus
  16. Node of ranvier
    • filled with ion channels
    • AP propagation
  17. Roles of glia
    • Maintain signal ability of neurons (maintain ionic environ)
    • Modulate rate of nerve cell propagation (myelination)
    • Modulate synaptic action (control uptake of neurotransmitters at synaptic cleft)
    • Scaffolding for development
    • Aid neurons in recovery
  18. Three types of glia
    • Astrocyte
    • Oligodendrocyte
    • Microglia
  19. Astrocyte
    • Maintain chem environ for neural signaling
    • Stem cells
  20. Oligodendrocyte
    • Myelinate CNS neurons
    • (equivalent in PNS is Schwann cell)
  21. Microglia
    • Scavenge cellular debris after injury
    • Moduilate inflammation and cell death
  22. Neural circuits
    • composed of many neurons
    • Afferent neurons
    • Interneurons
    • Efferent neurons
  23. Afferent neurons
    Carry info toward brain/spinal cord
  24. Interneurons
    Local aspects of circuit
  25. Efferent neurons
    Carry info away from brain or spinal cord
  26. Example of simple circuit
    Myotatic spinal reflex
  27. Myotatic spinal reflex
    • 1) Tap stretches tendon, stretching sensory receptors in leg extensor muscle
    • 2A) Sensory neuron excites motor neuron
    • 2B) Sensory neuron excites spinal interneuron
    • 2C) Interneuron inhibits motor neuron to flexor muscle
    • 3A) Motor neuron conducts AP to synapses on extensor muscle fibers, causing contraction
    • 3B) Flexor muscle relaxes, no activity
    • 4) Leg extends
  28. Functions of neural systems
    • Sensory interactions (organism and environ)
    • Motor-organize and generate actions
    • Link sensory and motor, produce higher order functions (cognition, emotion)
  29. Components of CNS
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord
  30. Depolarization
    More likely to fire AP
  31. Hyperpolarization
    Less likely to fire AP
  32. Components of PNS
    • Cranial nerves
    • Spinal nerves
  33. Subdivisions of PNS
    • Sensory pathways
    • Motor pathways
    • -Somatic nervous system
    • -Autonomic nervous system (symphatic vs parasymphatic)
  34. PNS
    • cell bodies in ganglia
    • axon are nerves
    • myelinated by schwann cells
  35. CNS
    • Cell bodies are in gray matter
    • Axons are in tracts (white matter)
    • Myelinated by oligodendrocytes
  36. Commissure
    Tracts containing axon crosses midline
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BIO 342: Ch1
Neurobiology Ch 1 Summary
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