Chapter 17, Digestive System

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Chapter 17, Digestive System
2012-02-11 12:42:58
Chapter 17 Digestive System

Chapter 17, Digestive System
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  1. Which gastrointestinal layer is characterized by having tough, fibrous connective tissue?
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The following areas contain tonsils except which one?
    A)around the frenulum
    D)root of tongue
    A)around the frenulum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. How many teeth will be produced in an average lifetime?
    • D)52
    • 20 as child 32 as adult
  4. Urea is synthesized by the liver following _____ metabolism.
    D)nucleic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following are liver waste products?
    C)bile salts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. How long is the gastrointestinal track(alimentary canal)?
    9 meters
  7. What organs make up gastrointestinal track(alimentary canal)?
    mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anal canal
  8. What is the function of accesory organs in the gastrointestinal track(alimentary canal)?
    release secreations into canal
  9. What are the accesory organs in the gastrointestinal track(alimentary canal)?
    salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancrease, and appendix
  10. What are the general functions of digestive track?
    • ingestion
    • motility
    • secreation
    • digestion
    • absorption
    • defecation
  11. A wave of smooth muscle contractions that propels materials through a hollow organ.
  12. Where does peristalsis occur and what stimulates it?
    • pharynx to anus
    • expansion of tube due to food
  13. What is mechanical digestion?
    chewing, manually breaking down food
  14. What is chemical digestion?
    digestive enzymes breaking down food
  15. Layers of the GI track?
    • Mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscular layer
    • serosa(serous layer)
  16. Parasympathetic impulses ________ digestive function.
  17. Sympathetic impulses ________ digestive function.
  18. What is the function of the mucosa of GI track?
    • absorb nutrients
    • protect underlying tissue
    • secreate mucus and digestive enzymes
  19. What is the function of the submucosa?
    transport absorbed materials via blood vessels
  20. What are the fibers of the smooth muscle in the muscular layer of the GI track?
    • Circular fibers(inner layer)
    • Longitudinal fibers(Outer coat)
  21. Which fibers of the muscular layer of the GI track are the inner layer and deacrease tube diameter due to contraction?
    Circular fibers
  22. Which fibers of the muscular layer of the GI track are the outer layer and cause the tube to shorten due to contraction?
    Longitudinal fibers
  23. What is the outermost covering of the GI tube composed of visceral peritoneum used for protection and secreation of fluid?
  24. area of the stomach near esophogus opening
    cardiac region
  25. Lipid digestion and absorption requires the coordinated actions of ______ and _____.
    lipase, bile.
  26. Which of the following is the tunica of the digestive tract that is a muscular layer and controls
    movement of food in the digestive tract?
  27. Which of the following is NOT a salivary gland?
    A. Parotid gland
    B. Sublingual gland
    C.Sebaceous glands
    D. Submandibular gland
    C.Sebaceous glands
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. What are the hepatic phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system(liver)?
    Kupffer cells
  29. How do digestive enzymes enter the duodenum?
    pancreatic duct
  30. Deglutition is coordinated by the swallowing center in the
  31. The salivary glands are composed of which of the two types of secretory cells?
    serous and mucous
  32. What is the first line of defense in the stomach against damaging acid and pepsin?
    adherent layer of mucous
  33. What is the effect of the release of cholecystokinin on the liver and gall bladder?
    gall bladder contractions
  34. The taste buds of the tongue are located on the
  35. The teeth that are best adapted for biting off relatively large pieces of food are the
  36. Chamber between tounge and palate
    oral cavity
  37. Space between teeth, lips, and cheeks
  38. What is the primary function of the large intestine ?
    water reabsorption
  39. What is the function of pepsin in the gastric juices?
    digest proteins
  40. What is needed to digest proteins?
    Pepsin, trypsin and peptidases
  41. What is the name of the lymphatic capillaries in the walls of the small intestine?
  42. Storage area of stomach, upper round portion
    fundic region
  43. main part of stomach
    body region
  44. inferior portion of stomach
    pyloric region
  45. Wavelike muscular contraction of the gastrointestinal tract is called
  46. Where is chyme made?
  47. Cholecystokinin secretion from the intestinal wall is stimulated by the presence of
    fat in the small intestine
  48. Which of the following is the effect of the release of cholecystokinin on the liver and gall bladder?
    gall bladder contractions
  49. Trypsin is activated by the enzyme
  50. Which of the following is the tunica of the digestive tract that has a muscular layer called the muscularis mucosa?
  51. What system has the following pattern of circulation: capillaries -> veins -> capillaries -> veins
    portal system
  52. The primary function of the large intestine is the
    absorption of water, minerals, and vitimans
  53. _________ is secreted by stomach and is important for the absorption of Vitamin B12 in the _______.
    Intrinsic factor; small intestine
  54. Where do the ducts from the liver and pancreas open into?
  55. What is attached to the cecum?
    Vermiform appendix
  56. Muscular tube 9 meter long
    Gastrointestinal tract/ GI track/ Alimentary canal
  57. Foods and liquids enter digestive track via mouth
  58. What is bolus?
    Food mixed with saliva
  59. What are the functions of the oral cavity?
    • analzye food
    • chew
    • create bolus
    • limited digestion
  60. Lateral walls of mouth that cosisit of skin, subcutaneous fat, muscles, and stratified squamos epithelium. Assist in moving food
  61. Skeletal muscles with sensory receptors that judge temp and texture of food?
  62. Membranous fold of tounge
  63. Aids in creating bolus and moving it to pharynx
  64. Taste buds are also called
  65. Formed by maxillary and palatine bones
    hard palate
  66. muscular arch that seperates oral cavity from nasopharynx
    soft palate
  67. Cone-shaped projection of soft palate
  68. What closes the nasal cavity opening when swallowing?
    Muscles pulling soft palate and uvula upward
  69. What tooth is chisel shaped, 4 on top & 4 on bottom, with sharp edges used to bite off relatively large pieces off food?
  70. What tooth is cone shaped, useful in grasping food, 2 on top and 2 on bottom?
  71. What teeth have flattened sufaces used for grinding food?
    Bicuspids and molars
  72. Part of the tooth above the gum line
  73. part of tooth below the gum line?
  74. Teeth are attached to the jawline by collagenous fibers of?
    periodontal ligament
  75. What are the functions of saliva? (5)
    • moisten food
    • lubicant for swallowing
    • chemical digestion of carbs
    • disolves food for taste
    • cleanse mouth
  76. What helps saliva maintain a neutral pH?
    bicarbonate ions(HC03-)
  77. What is the pH of saliva?
  78. Serous cells of salivary glands produce ______ which breaks down ______ into ________
    • amalayse
    • starch & glycogen
    • disaccharids
  79. Mucous cells of the saivary gland secret _____ wich aids to _____ food for _______
    • mucous
    • lubricate
    • swallowing
  80. Salivary glands are inervated by what nervous system?
    Both sympathetic and parasympathetic
  81. Where are salivary glands located?
    scattered throughout mucosa of tounge, palate, and cheeks
  82. What are the 3 major salivary glands?
    • Parotid gland
    • submandibular gland
    • sublingual gland
  83. What is the largest salivary gland, located between cheeks and masseter muscle, and secreates amylase?
    Parotid gland(secreates serous solution only)
  84. Which salivary gland is on the floor of the mouth on the inside surface of the mandible, produces a more vicous saliva, and secretes both serous and mucus solutions?
    Submandibular gland
  85. Which salivary gland is the smallest, located on the floor of the mouth, and primarily secretes mucus fluid?
    Sublingual gland
  86. Funnel shaped tube that connects nasal and oral cavities to larynx and esophagus
  87. What makes up the muscular walls of the pharynx?
    • constrictor muscles(circular muscles)
    • longitudinal muscles
  88. The ______ muscle of the pharynx push the food ahead, while the _______ muscle pulls the pharynx upward.
    • constrictor
    • longitudinal
  89. Name the different tonsils types
    • palatine
    • lingual
    • pharyngeal
  90. The swelling of which tonsil causes tonsillitis?
  91. Which tonsil is referred to as adenoid?
  92. What muscles function involuntarily during swallowing?
    pharyngeal muscles
  93. Complex process whose initiation can be controlled
  94. What are the 3 stages of swallowing?
    • food chewed, bolus moved to pharynx(voluntary)
    • food moves to esophogus(involuntary)
    • sensory receptros in palatal arch and uvula get initiated(reflex response)
  95. Where is the swallowing center located in the brain?
  96. What moves food through the esophagus into the stomach?
    peristaltic contractions
  97. the bolus triggers an opening in the
    cardiac sphincter
  98. Collapsible tube, 10 inches, connects pharynx to stomach
  99. Where is the esophagus located?
    • posterior to trachea
    • passes through mediastinum
    • penetrates diaphragm
  100. What is the name of the opening where the esophagus penetrates the diaphgram?
    esophageal hiatus
  101. Smoothe circular muscle at the end of esophagus, prevents regurgitation of food from stomach
    cardaic sphincter
  102. What causes heartburn?
    cardiac sphincter doesn't close completly
  103. Folds in the mucosa of stomach
  104. J-shaped organ in the upper left quadrant of abdominal cavity
  105. What are the regions of the stomach?
    • Cardiac(cardia)
    • fundic(fundus)
    • body
    • pyloric(pylorus)
  106. Circular smooth muscle where the stomach and duodenum connect
    pyloric sphincter
  107. Valve between stomach and small intestine, prevents small intestine contents from entering stomach
    pyloric sphincter
  108. Gastric ____ contains gastric glands which secrete gastric juice through the gastric ____ to the lumen of the stomach
    • mucosa
    • pits(small openings)
  109. Name the 3 types of gastric gland secretory cells
    • mucous/goblet(top near gastric pit)
    • parietal(middle)
    • chief(btm)
    • enterendocrine(base)
  110. Which gastric cells secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor?
  111. Which gastric cells secrete pepsinogen, pepsin, and lipase?
  112. Inactive enzyme secreated in the intestine?
  113. What converts pepsinogen to pepsin?
    HCI acid and pepsin
  114. Aids in the absorption of vitiman B12 from the Illeum of small intestine?
    intrinsic factor
  115. Enzyme that digest protein, most important, more effective in acidic enviorment
  116. Digest butterfats, not as effective due to low pH of gastric juice
    gastric lipase
  117. What regulates gastric juice secretions?
  118. What secretes somatostatin(hormone)?
    enteroendocrine cells of GI track
  119. Decreases digestive function by inhibiting secretion of HCI acid from parietal cells
  120. Vagus nerve _____ the secreation of somatostation due to ___________ impulses
    • suppress
    • parasympathetic
  121. Parasympathetic impulses stimulate enteroendocrine cells in pyloric region of stomach to release
  122. Gastrin ______ the secretions of the gastric glands
  123. Parasympathetic impulse +gastrin =? Which causes?
    • release of histamine
    • stimulates gastric secreation
  124. What are the stomach layers
    • circular
    • longitudinal
    • oblique
  125. Mixing movements in stomach produce
  126. What moves chyme into pyloric region of stomach?
    peristaltic waves
  127. enterogastric reflex ______ peristaltic waves
  128. hormone released from intestine if chyme is high in fat or protein, inhibits peristaltic waves
  129. organ that goes from duodenum to spleen, head to duodenum, tail to spleen
  130. pancreatic duct, common bile duct, and gallbaldder join at a dialted tube called ______ on the duodenum
    hepatopancreatic ampulla
  131. What organ digest all 4 organic molecules?
  132. what cells produce pancreatic juice
    pancreatic acinar cells
  133. Enzyme that digest starch or glycogen into disaccharides
  134. Enzyme that converts fats(triglycerides) into fatty acid and monoglycerides
  135. enzyme secreated by mucosa of small intestine needed to activate protein splitting enzymes
  136. proteolytic enzymes digest
  137. _______ activates chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase in the small intestine
  138. Tryspin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase are_______ enzymes
  139. What has a high bicarbonate ion concentration, neatralizes chyme, and causes intestinal wall to be alkaline?
    pancreatic juice
  140. What is released when acidic chyme enters duodenum?
  141. What is released when chyme has high fat or protein content?
  142. Largest internal organ, located upper right central portion of abdominal cavity, below diaphgram
  143. What is the function of liver?
    • carbohydrate metabolism
    • lipid metabolism
    • protein metabolism
    • blood filtering
    • detoxification
    • secreation
  144. Waste product of protein metabolism
  145. Liver secreation that directly affects digestion
  146. 4 lobes of liver
    right, left, caudate, quadrate
  147. functional units of liver
    hepatic lobules
  148. Bile is secreated by
    hepatic cells
  149. what part of bile has digestive function
    bile salt
  150. High concentration of ______ form gallstones
  151. stores bile between meals
  152. Stimulates release of bile and pancreatic juices, causes stomach peristalsis to decrease
  153. Emulsification is _______ digestion
  154. tubular organ, extends from pyloric sphincter to large intestine, 18-20 ft
    small intestine
  155. Structures of small intestine
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • illeum
  156. shortest portion(10 inches) of small intestine, recieves ducts from liver and pancreas
  157. part of small intestine that lies free in peritoneal cavity, 8 ft
  158. most distal part of small intestine, 11 ft
  159. double layered fold of peritonium, anchors jejunum and illeim to abdominal wall, has blood vessels and nerves
  160. double layered fold of peritonium, covers intestine like apron, contains lymph nodes
    greater omentum
  161. Small intestine wall lined with ____
  162. simple columnar epithelium, CT core with blood capillaries and lacteals
  163. increase the surface area of villus, increases absorption,can be seen with electron microscope
  164. What digestive enzymes are located on microvilli?
    • peptidases
    • sucrase,maltase, and lactase
    • intestinal lipase
  165. peptidase splits
    amino acids
  166. sucrase,maltase, and lactase split
    disaccharides into monosacchardis
  167. intestinal lipase splits
    fatty acid to glycerol
  168. Most important organ of absorption
    small intestine
  169. begining of large intestine
  170. Name parts of large intestine
    • cecum
    • colon
    • rectum
    • anal canal
  171. last inch of colon
    anal canal
  172. located next to sacrum
  173. internal anal sphincter is ______ muscle with ______ control
    • smooth
    • involuntary
  174. external anal sphincter is ______ muscle under _____ control
    • skeletal
    • voluntary
  175. pouches in the wall of large intestine that increase surface area of colon and give it a puckered apperance
  176. Where is the only place nucleic acid gets broken down into nucleotides? What enzyme breaks down nucleic acid?
    • pancreas
    • nucleases
  177. Which organ is both endocrine gland and exocrine gland?
  178. Enzyme that breaks down peptides into amino acids
  179. Enzyme that breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharids
    sucrase, maltase, lactase
  180. Enzyme that coverts trypsinogen into trypsin
  181. Hormone that inhibts acid secreation in the stomach and intestine by parietal cells
  182. Hormone that inhibits gastric glands
  183. Hormone that stimulates pancreas to release enzymes in pancreatic juice
  184. Hormone that stimulates gallbladder to release bile
  185. Hormone that stimulates pancreas to release bicarbonate ions in pancreatic juice in response to acidic chyme
  186. Hormone that increases activity of gastric gland in the stomach and intestine in response to food and chyme
  187. What is the only enzyme secreated in the mouth?