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What is the function of a red blood cell
- Transport oxygen and co2 out of the body
- no neucleus
what is the lifespan of a red blood cell
what is erythropoeisis
manufacturing of red blood cells
what cells in the kidney detect oxygen content
what are young red blood cells known as
what is the normal reticulocyte of the blood
1% if higher it indicates decreased oxygen. we can see this when a person is at high altitude they have more reticulosites in blood.
what is heme
what is the bulk of heme unit converted to?
how is billirubin transported in the body
it has to be conjugated to be transported. conjugation makes it water soluble.
how long does it take for reticulocyte ot mature
what happens as red blood cells age
metabolic activity in the cell decreases, enzyme activity declines and ATP decreases and the cell becomes fragile. normally rbc production is equal to the rate of destruction
where are phagocytic cells for the destruction of RBC's found
- bone marrow
- lymph nodes
how is billibrubin removed
bilirubin is removed from the blood by the liver and conjugated to make it water soluble.
why is a CBG done
look for leukocytes, hematocrit level
What are immature neutrophils called
what is the normal rate of RBC production
it equals that produced
Why do we do CBC
- Look at white blood cell counts
- Hematocrit level (fluid overload will lower hematocrit level)
- -toget hematocrit multiply hemoglobin by 3.
- H and H = hematocrit/hemoglobin
- Red blood cell count
electrolyte count is on what type of panal
how is billirubin transported in plasma
by attaching to plasma protein
what removes hemoglobin from the blood
liver and conjugated so it is water soluble
components of CBC
- Red blood cell count
- White blood cell count
what are MCV and MCHC used for
to classify anemias
- mean corpustular volume calculated based on hematocrit and red blood. # of red blood cell in hematocrit= looking at the size of red blood cell.
- is it microcytic/mtacrocytic/normacytic
- mean corpustular hemoglobin content
- looking at hemoglobin content of red blood cell. used for knowing anemias-ie anemias cells hypocromic or hypercromic
- MCV and MHC help classify anemias
Red cell distribution width- looking at how similar cells are in size if this number is up it tells us we have lots of different cell sizes
if you have lower platelet values what does it mean
Low white cell count what is it called
how is a CBC done manual /automatic
mainly automatic but can be done manually
CBC with a dif means
diff applies to white blood cells. a manual differential counting of white blood cells.
when would we do manual differential
when there is something serious going on
What is a left shift
Going from mature cells to babies with white cells.
if CBC you will get break down
white blood cell diferrential
PLMEB percentage from least to most of the white blood cells
Elevated white blood cell count and you see an elevated neutrophils and elevated band counts
recruiting help from the high school. the more immature cells we see we are going to the left.
left shift means
means an acute infection
Blood loss anemia
can be internal or external. can reach 50% before signs and symptoms show up
why are the effects of blood loss anemia seen
due to loss of intravascular volume
how long does it take to return to normal after blood loss
Chronic blood loss how does it affect the body
does not effect blood volume but instead leads to iron deficiency anemeia when iron stores are depleted
cutting arm off what is that
External - isotonic loss
CHronic blood loss
slow overtime, body has time to compensate. no change in volume. you will have symptoms after iron stores are depleted
when to we see chronic blood loss
Gi bleeding, peptic ulcer.
Premature destructrutction of red blood cell, retention of iron and products of hemoglobin, increase in blood production because of that. potentially lead to jaundice.
Sickle cell disease
Caused by malshaped cells
Consequence of sickle cell disease
red blood cell lysing leading to blood oclusion
what factors trigger sickeling of cell
cold, stress, infection, physical exertion, illness that cause hypoxia, dehydration, acidosis,
is there a cure for sickle cell
no only management
inherited disorder leads to chronic hemolytic anemia, pain and organ failure
two consequence of sickle cell sicklin
chromic hemolytic anemia and blood vessel occlusion
- a group of inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis leading to decreased synthesis of alpha or beta globin chains.
- - you see hypochromic microcytic anemia and hemolysis occurs
- - meaning microcytic - affected in MCV
- -Hypochromic low hemoglobin and MCHC light color
- - transfuse patient - hemoglobin need to be in 9/10
Iron deficiency anemia
- Dietary dificiency, loss of iron through bleeding or increased demand
- -can be dietary / blood loss
- -will see low H and H and reduced MCHC and MCV
- -microcytic and hypochromic
is indicative of Fe stores.
- Vitamin B12 dificiency or folic acid dificiency
- -need extrensic factors to met B12
low hemoglovin reflected in hemoglobin and MCHC
reflective of cell size
what is the MCV and MCHC for iron dificiency anemia
what symptoms will you see with H and H
tachycardia, murmur because blood viscosity changes, pale,
Results from impaired DNA synthesis and causes enlarged RBC's.
what causes megaloblastic anemias
vitamin B!2 deficiency and folic acid which is needed fof DNA synthesis
resuls from lack of intrinsic factors due to atrophic gastritis so you cannot metabolize B12
causes of B12 difficiency
Gastrectomy, ileal resection, inflammation or neoplasms in the ileum, and malabsorption syndromes
what type of RBc do you see with megaloblastic anemia
- Large oval and flimsy menbrane
- MCV is elevated and MCHC is normal
Low RBC, neutropenic, Thrombocyclpenia. Can be fatal so you have lower everything
aplastic anemia s/sx
- echymossis - bruising, weakness, fatigue, pallor
- petechiae, bleeding
what causes aplastic aneia
exposure to radiation chemicals, chemotherapy, infection
people with kidney failure have aplastic anemia
because they are not able to produce erythropoeitin. hemodialysis
anemia of chronic disease
a complication of infection, inflammation, cancer,
what is anemia of chronic disease in terms of MCV and MCHC
normacytic and normochromic with low reticulocyte counts.
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